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Attention: Kathy Imrie 



ONTARIO 
TEACHERS' .IAN UALS 

NATURE STUDY 

AIJTHORIZED BY THE MINISTER qpF EDUCATION 

TORONTO 
THE RYERSON PRESS 



COPRIGH'i . CANADA, 1915. B" 
THE -INITER OF EDUCATION FOR ONTARIO 
Second Printing, 1918 
Third Printing. 1923. 
Fourth lrinting. 1924 



CONTENTS v 

CHAPTER V. FORI I: SPRING PAGE 
Garden Work ..................................... 87 
Garden Studies--window garden ............... 88 
Wild Flowers ...................................... 90 
Recognition of Wild Flowers ................... 91 
Lesson in Outline--Bloodroot; correlations ..... 91 
Insect Study ....................................... 93 
Cecropia, or Emperor-moth ..................... 93 
Dragon-fly ..................................... 94 
Other Conspicuous Insects ..................... 95 
Birds ............................................. 95 
The Robin .................................... 96 
Field exercises; the nest, eggs, and young... 96 
The Song-sparrow ............................. 97 
Field exercises: class-room lesson .......... 97 
The Sheep ........................................ 99 
Problems for Field Work ...................... 99 

CHAPTER VI. FoR-[ II : AVTUMN 
Bulb Planting Out-of-Doors ......................... 101 
Bed for growing bulbs; planting of bulbs 
indoors ................................. 101 
Garden Work ...................................... 103 
Seed selection; storing seeds; harvesting and 
storing of garden crops; class-room lesson; 
autumn cultivation ...................... 103 
Garden Studies .................................... 106 
Garden Records; correlations .......... 
Climbing Plants ................................... 108 
Trees ............................................. 109 
Storing of Tree Seeds .......................... 11. 
A Flower .......................................... 
Type---Nasturtium ............................. 1 
Soil Studies ....................................... 
Kinds of Soil .................................. 112 
Animal Studies .................................... 
Bird Migration; correlations .... ............... 113 
Common Wild Animals ........................ 114 
General method for field work .............. 
The Wood-chuck ............................... 116 
The Chipmunk--field exercises ................. 117 
The Eastern Swallow-tail Butterfly ............. 



CONTENTS vii 

CIIAPTER IX. FOR3I III: AI'TI'MN PA;E 
Garden Work ..................................... 154 
Treatment of Fungi ........................... 154 
Treatment of Insects--cabbage-worm ........... 156 
Plants ............................................ 158 
Annuals, Biennials, and Perennials ............. 158 
Class-room lesson .......................... 158 
Garden Studies ................................ 159 
Annuals, biennials, perennials .............. 159 
Special Study of Garden Plants ................. 160 
Sweet-pea; pumpkin: corn: correlations .... 160 
Seed Dispersal--Lesson ............................ 164 
Detailed Study of Seed Dispersal--class-room 
lesson ...................................... 165 
Seed collections; man as a disperser of seeds 166 
The Sugar Maple---field exercises ................... 168 
Maple Leaves--class-room lesson: correlations.. 169 
Weed Studies ..................................... 170 
Observation lesson on weed seeds .............. 171 
Grasshopper--field exercises; class-room lesson ...... 172 
Aphides ........................................... 174 
Tomato Worm--the adult; the chrysalis .......... 175 
The Crow; correlations ............................ 177 

CHAPTEI X. FOR.XI III: WINTER 
Care of Plants in the Home ...................... 178 
Plant Cuttings ................................. 179 
Selection of cuttings; potting of rooted 
cuttings ................................ 179 
E vergTeens--class-room lesson .................... 181 
Collection of Wood Specimens ..................... 
Related Reading ................................... 183 
How Animals Prepare for Winter .................. 183 
Summary of Lessons; correlations ........... 184 
Chickens ......................................... 185 
Conversation lesson; arithmetic lesson: care 
and food of chickens .................... 185 
Physical Science Phase of Nature Study ............ 
Solids, Liquids, and Gases ......................... 188 
Change of State ............................... 189 
Expansion of Solids ........................... 189 
Practical applications; questions for further 
investigation ............................ 190 
Expansion of Liquids--applications ............ 192 



CONTENTS ix 

CHAPTER XlI. FOt:.M IV: At'Tt't.--CotDued 
Trees--The White Pine ........................... 232 
Outline of a class-room lesson on the white 
pine; correlations; references ............ 235 
Apples--Comparative Lesson on Winter Varieties .... 239 
King, Baldwin, Northern Spy .................. 239 
Codling moth; references ...................... 240 
Some Common Animal Forms: references .......... 242 
Centipeds and millipeds ....................... 243 
Salamanders or newts ......................... 243 
Spiders ....................................... 244 
Bird Studies ...................................... 245 

CHAPTER XlII. FOR.t IV: WLXTER 
Forest Trees ...................................... 246 
Evergreens; Wood Specimens .................. 246 
Fruits ............................................ 247 
Weeds and Weed Seeds ............................ 248 
Physical Science Phase of Nature Study ............ 248 
Water Pressure--exercises .................... 248 
Study of Air .................................. 249 
The barometer; the common pump; expan- 
sive force of air; composition of air; 
oxygen; carbon dioxide; impurities of air. 250 
Solutions of Solids ............................ 255 
Solutions of Liquids ........................... 256 
Solutions of Gases ............................. 256 
Limestone ................................ 256 
Carbon ....................................... 257 
Hydrogen .................................... 258 
Magnets ...................................... 258 
Electricity .................................... 259 
Steam ........................................ 260 
Farm tools--machines; problems .............. 260 

'HAPTER XIV. Fomx[ IV: SPRING 
Method of Improving Home and School Grounds ... 263 
Making and Care of a Lawn: References ....... 264 
Soil Studies ....................................... 265 
Weight ....................................... 265 
Subsoils ...................................... 266 
Fertilizersexperiments ....................... 268 
Soil-forming Agents ........................... 268 
Tilling the Soil ............................... 269 
Garden Work--experiments in plots out-of-doors. 27o 



PREFATORY NOTE 

THIS Manual is placed ill the hands of the teachers in the 
hope that the suggestions which it contains on lesson topics, 
materials, books of refereuce, and methods in teaching will 
be found helpful to all teachers and in particular to those 
who have had little or uo instruction in Nature Study 
during their academic or professional training. 
The first Chapter of the Manual discusses topics which 
have general reference to the subject as a whole. The 
remaining part of the Manual deals more particularly with 
the subject in its application to the different Public and 
Separate School Forms. While this division t,f the matter 
into Forms is couvenient fa general classifieati,n, it is na 
to be regarded as arbitrary. Materials and nwtho,ls of pre- 
sentation suitable for one class of pupils in a certain Form 
might, under different conditions, be quite unsuitable for 
another class of pupils in the same Form. Fa example, 
work which would be suitable for a class iu Form I made 
up of pupils admitted to a school at seven or eight years 
of age, after two years' training in a kindergarten where 
nature lessons received special attention, would not he suit- 
able for a Form I class made up af pupils admitted to a 
school at five years of age with no such previous training. 
In leeting work for any class the teacher, therefore, should 
uot be guided solely by the arbitrary divisions of the 
Manual, but should exercise his own judzment, taking into 
account his environment and the attainment. of his pupil.. 
To facilitate such a selection, page references are given 
in the details of the Course of Study, which in reality 
forms a detailed expansion of the Public and Separate 
School Course in Nature Study. By means of these refer- 
ences, the teacher may find, in any department of the sub- 
ject, typical matter suited to the development of his pupils. 
1 



2 NATURE STUDY 

The numer,,us lype lessons tl,at are contained in the 
Manual are intended to suggest principles of method that 
are to be applied in lessons upon the same and similar 
topics, but the teacher is cautioned against attempting to 
imitate these lessons. This error can be avoided by the 
teacher's careful preparation of the lesson. This preparation 
sht,uld include the careful study of the cont.rete materials 
that are t,, he used. The books, bulletins, etc., that are 
named in the Manual as references will be found helpful. 
To facilitate teaching through the experinaental and 
investigation methods, special attention has been given to 
the improvising of simple apparatus from materials within 
the reach of ever.,," teacher. 
Fr,,m the character of the subject the Course of Study 
must be more or less elastic, and the topics detailed in the 
programme are intended to he suggestive rather than 
prescriptive. It may be that, owing to local conditions, 
topics not named are among the best that can be used, 
but all substitutions and changes should be made a subject 
of consultation with the In.pector. The treatment of the 
subject must always be suited to the age and experience of 
the pupils, t,, the seasons of the year, accessibility of 
materials, etc. Notes should not be dictated hv the teacher. 
Mere information, whether from book, written note, or 
teacher, is not Nature Study. The acquisition of know- 
ledge must be made sec,ndarv to awakening and main- 
taining the pupil'. interest in nature and to training him 
lo hahit. of ohservation and investigation. 
As a ide to the minimum of work required, it is 
suggested that at least one lesson he taught from the 
subjects outlined under each general heading in the detailed 
Course of Study, with a minimum average of three 
from the subjects under each general heading. 



PUBLIC AND SEPARATE CII{}OL 
('OURSE OF STUDY 

DETAILS 

FORM I 

AUTUMN 

{AIIDEN VOllK AND {;ARDEN TVDII-:. : 
Division of the arden plot, rolncval of weed 
and observations on these weeds, identification 
of garden plants, observation lessons based on 
garden plant, selection of seed, harvesting and 
disposing of the crop. (See pp. 5-9.} 
STUDY OF LANTS: 
Class lessons based on a flowering garden plant, as 
pansy, aster, nasturtium; study o a field plant, 
a buttercup, goldenrod, dandelion. (S-t. pp. 
55-9. ) 
Potted and garden plants: Observation lesson based 
on a bulb; planting bulbs in pots, or in the 
garden. (See pp. 69-1.) 
BII:DS AND ('ONSPICUOUS IN-SEt'TS : 
Identification of a few common birds, as robin, Eng- 
lish sparrow, mcad,w-lark: observation lessons 
on the habits ,,f these brs; collection of th,, 
adult forms, the larv and the cocoons of a few 
comfimn moths and buerflies, as emperor-moth, 
promotbea moth. eastern swallow-tail buiiorflv. 
(See pp. 30-9 and 93-8.) 
3 



COURSE OF STUDY 5 

BIRDS AND INSECTS: 
Identification and study of the habits of a few com- 
mon birds, as song-sparrow, blue-bird, wren; 
observations of the form and habits of a few 
common insects, as house-fly, dragon-fly. (See 
pp. 30-3 and 93-9.) 

{OMMON TREES : 
Observations on the opening buds of the trees which 
were studied in the 3_uturan. (See p. 65.) 

FORM lI 

AUTUMN 

BIRDS AND INSECTS: 
Autumn migration of birds; identification and 
observations on the habit. and movements of a 
few cvmmon insects, including their larval 
forms, as grass]ml)per, eastern swallow-tail 
butterfly. (See pp. 113-4 and 118-9.) 

.NIMALS OF THE FARM, FIELD, AND V'OOD: 
Observations on the homes and habits of wild animals, 
as frog, toad, squirrel, ground-hog; habits 
structures, including adaptive features, of domes- 
tic animals, as dog, cat, horse, cow. (See pp. 
83 and 123-30.) 

TIEES OF TIIE ]ARM, IOADSIDE, WOOD, AND ORCHARD: 
Observations on the shapes, sizes, rate of growth, and 
usefulness of cvmmon orchard, shade, and forest 
trees, as apple, elm, horsc-c.hestnut. (See pp. 
109-10.) 



6 NATURE STUDY 

';LI; I:LOWERS AND 'EEDS: 
Identification and study of a few common weeds, 
noting their means of persistenoe and dispersal. 
{See pp. 139-4{.) 
'ARE oF POTTED AXI} { AI[DEN PLANTS : 
Preparation of pots and garden beds for hulbs; 
selecting and storing gardeu seeds; observations 
on the habits of climbing plants, and application 
of the kmowledge gained to the care required for 
these plants. (See pp. ltl-9 and ltl.) 

V'INTER 
1)II:D. : 
h]entification of winter birds and study of their 
lneans ,ff 1)rotcction and of obtaillinff food. (See 
l"P- 13-2.) 
.NI3IALS Ol' TIIE FAI;3I : 
Comparative study of the horse and cow, of the dog 
ld c-at, and of the dm.k and hen. (See pp. 
1 3-s. ) 
.NI3[AL OF TIfF l ]zK X'D ZOOLOgiCAL ;A]DEN: 
erxations on the enera] truetura] features, not- 
hz the natural adaptation of uc]z annm]s as 
bear, ]ion, deer, tier, etc.. (ee p. 132.) 
Winter tudv of trees, notin bud, branche, and 
f-]iae o[ pruce, cedar, horse-chestnut, etc. 
l'P- ]2Z-3.) 

SPRING 
BIRDS AXD INSECTS : 
Observations on the tructure, 

adaptations, and 



{'OUItSE OF STUDY 7 

derelopmcnt of insect larva: kept in an aquarium, 
as larva of mosquito, dragon-fly, caddice-fly; 
spring migration of birds. (Sce pp. 14:)-153.) 
.kNIMALS OF TIlE FIELD AND *OODS : 
Observations on the forms, homes, habits, and foods 
of wild animals, continued. (ee pp. 11i-8, 
-9.) 
ORCHARD TREES : 
The buds and blossoms of apple, and cherry or plum, 
observed through the stages up to frui 
formatimL (ee pp. 141-3.} 
EXl'EI[E'TS I" THE GEIINATION OF SEEDS: 
Germination of seeds and general obserrations on the 
stages of development; testing the conditions 
required for seed germination; introducto D" exer- 
cises in soil study as a preparation for seed 
planting. (See pp. 133-s and 112-3.} 
WILD FLOWERS AND WEEDS : 
Field and class-room study of marsh marigold, Jack-in- 
thequipit, violet, cw. (See pp. 39-4o.} 

FOP, M III 

AUTUMN 
J[IRD.' AND INSECTS : 
Observations on the habits and the ravages of common 
noxious insects, as cabbage-worm, grasshopper, 
tussock-moth, etc. ; discussion of means of check- 
ing these insets. (See pp. 15fi-7 and 1;?-7.) 
F.tn. .tXD WILD AN'I.IALS OF TIlE LOCALITY : 
Field study and class-room lesson. on the habits and 
structure, in.luding adaptive features, of common 



NATURE STUDY 

CIIAPT ER I 

THE AIMS OF NATURE STUDY 

NATURE Study means primarily the stn,lv of natural 
things and preferably of living things. Like all other 
subjects, it must justify its position on the school 
curriculum by proving its power to equip the pupil 
the responsibilities of citizenship. That citizen is best 
prepared for life who lives in most sympathetic and intelli- 
geut relati,m to his environment, aud it is the primary aim 
of Nature Study to maintaiu the boml [.f interest which 
unites the chihl's life to the objects and phcm.mena which 
surround him. To this end it is nevessarv t- adapt the 
teachiug, in matter and method, to the conditions of the 
(.hild's life, that he may learn to understaud the se.rets of 
nature and be the hetter able to control and utilize the 
forces of his natural environment. 
At all times, the teacher must keep in mind the fact 
that it is not the quantity of matter taught but the interest 
aroused and the spirit of investigation fostered, together 
with carefulness and thoroughness, which are the important 
ends to be sought. With a mind trained to experiment and 
stinmlated by a glimpse into nature's secrets, the worker 
finds in his labour a scientific interest that lifts it above 
drudgery, while, from a fuller understanding of the forces 

13 



16 NATURE STUDY 

MATT]SIt I UST BE .%uI'rED 'ro Tl! E CII ILD 

For the urban pupil the treatment of tle nmterial mu:t 
be different from that in the case of the pupil of the rural 
school. Rural school pupils have already formed an exten- 
sive acquaintance with ninny plants and aninmls which are 
entirely nnknown to the children of the city. The simpler 
facts which are interesting aml instructive to the pupils of 
the urban classe: would proe commonplace and trivial to 
rural pupils. For example, while it is necessary to :how 
the city child a squirrel that he may learn the size, colour, 
and general appearance of the animal, the efforts of the 
pupil of the rural school should I)e directed to the discovery 
of the less evident facts of squirrel life. 

USE OF TIlE '}3IM}NPLACE 

1 musl he kept in mind that hesides leading the pupils 
to discover new sources f interest, tim teacher should strive 
t- accomplish that which is even greater, namely, to lead 
them t discover new truth and new beauty in ohl. familiar 
,,hject. [t may be true that "' familiarity breeds con- 
Wml,t " an,1 there is always a danger tlmt the objects with 
which (.hildre ]rove as,,ciated in early life may be pas:ed 
],v as uninteresting while tley go iu search of s,mething 
"" new and interesting" 
For example, t, he aide t,, recognize many plants and 
t, call them 1)v name is no doubt somethin of an accom- 
plishment, but it should not 1,e the chief aim of the teacher 
in eomluetin N'ature Study lessons on plants. It is of 
much zreaier imlmrialwe that fle child should be led to 
love the flwers and to appreciate their beauty aud their 
utility. Such appreciation will result in the desire to 
protect and to produce fine flowers aml useful plants, 



ORDER OF DEVELOPMENT OF LESSON 17 

and this end can I,c reached ,,nly through intclligen| 
acquaintanceship. There can I,e m, true al,l,reciati,n with- 
out knowledge, and this the child gets chiefly 1,y personal 
observation and experiment. With reference to the wild 
/lowers of the woods and fields, the method employed is 
that of continuous observation. 

ORDER OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE LESSON 

Each animal or plant should be studied as a living, 
active organism. The attention of the pupils should be 
focused upon activities; for these appeal to the child uaturc 
and afford the best mean for se,.urinr interest and atten- 
tion. What does this animal do? How d,es it d it? 
IIow is it fitted for doing flis ? tlow does this plant grow ? 
What fits it for gnawing in this way? These are questions 
which should exercise the mind of the child. They are 
queslions natural in tle .pirit -f inquiry in child nature 
and give vitality to nature teaching. They are an effective 
means .f establishing a I.md of sympatly between the child 
and nature. The ,.hihl wb,, takes care of a plant or animal 
because it is his ,wn, does s- at first fr,-,ln a purely personal 
motive, whi(.h is perfectly natural h, childh_,.l; Iut while 
he studies its needs and el,serves it m,,vemeuts and 
changes, gradually and um..nsci,uslv this interest will be 
transferred to the plant or animal for its own sake. The 
nature of the chihl it thus broadened durin the process. 

I'IOILE.Ms IN OBSERVATION 

In studying the material provided, whether it be in the 
class-room, or during a nature excursion, ,-,r by observations 
made in the farmyard at home. the teacher nmst dde the 
efforts of the pupils by a.sizning to them definite and suit- 



THE SCHOOL GARDEN 19 

conclusion without having studied a large number of 
examples. The development of critical and judicious 
minds, which may result from carefully observing many 
examples and generalizing from these observations, is vastly 
more important than the menmrizing of many facts. 

THE SCHOOL GARDEN 

In the study of garden plants there is added a certain 
uew iuterest arising out of experimentation, cultivation, and 
ownership. The loe of the gardener has in it elements that 
tile love of the naturalist does not usually possess--a sort 
of paternal love and care for the plants produced in his 
garden; but every gardener should be a naturalist as well. 
Most people hare a higher appreciation for that which they 
own and which they have produced or acquired at some 
expense or personal sacrifice ; therefore it is that tile growing 
of plants iu home aud sch,,()l gardens or in pots and win- 
dow boxes is so strongly advocated throughout this Course. 
Ownership always implies responsibility, which is at once 
tile chief safeguard of society and tile foundation of 
'itizenship. A careless boy will never respect the property 
of others so much as when he himlf has proprietary 
interests involved. We believe, therefore, that ever)- teacher 
should encourage his pupils to cultivate plants and, if 
possible, to own a plot of ground however small. 
The teacher should not merely aim at making a garden 
in the school grounds. The great question is rather how 
bes to use a school garden in connection with the training 
of boys and girls. To learn to do garden work well is 
indeed worth while and provides a highly beneficial kind 
of manual training. To understand something of soils and 
methods of cultivation, of fertilizers and drainage, the best 
kinds of fl,,wers, vegetables, fruit., and farm crops, and how 



20 NATURE STUDY 

to grow them successfully, is very important iu such a great 
agricultural contry as this ; but the greatest of all results 
which we may hope to realize in connection with school 
gardening is the ennobling of life and character. The 
pupils are taught to observe the growing plants with great 
care, noting developments day by day. This adds to their 
appreciation of the beauties and adaptations found among 
plants on every side, and cannot fail to produce good results 
in moral as well as in mental development. The teachers 
must always remember that the gardeners with whom they 
are working are more important than the gardens which 
they cultivate. 
The best garden is not always the largest and most 
elaborate oe. It is rather the garden that both teacher 
and pupils have been most deeply interested in. It is the 
garden in which they have experienced most pleasure and 
profit that makes them want to bare another better than 
the last. N, school is too small to have a garden of some 
kind, and no garden is t(,, small to become the joy and 
pride of some boy or girl. 

S UCd EST I0 N.q 
For the benefit of teachers beginning their duties on the 
first of eptember, in school sections where school gardening 
has never been carried on, the following suggestions are 
offered : 
1. See if the grounds will permit of a part being used 
for a garden. To ascertain this, no the size of the present 
grounds and see if they meet the requirements of the 
Department as ]aid down in the Ncgulations. If they do 
not, consult your Inspcehr at once and a'quaint him with 
your plans. If the grounds are to be enlarffed, try to take 
in snfficicnt land of good quality to make a .zoo,l garden. 



26 NATURE STUDY 

SUGGESTIONS FOR UNGRADED SCHOOLS 

1. The teas.her may take all the classes, choosing an 
object of study from which he can teach lessons suitable to 
all ages, a bird's nest, for example. 
2. In man 3- section, the little ones are dismissed at 
3.30 p.m. Opportunity is thus given for an excursion with 
the seniors. 
3. The oh]er pupils may be assigned work and left in 
charge of a monitor, elected by themselves, who shall be 
responsible for their conduct, while the teacher is working 
outside with the lower Forms. 
4. Boys who are naturally interested in outdoor work 
should be encouraged to show the others anything of interest 
they may have found. 
5. An oc.asional .aturdav excursion may be arranged. 

Discipline.--The tvacher should insist Oil making the 
excursion a serious part of the school work, not merely 
recreation. School-room behaviour cannot be expected, but 
the boisterous conduct of the playground should give place 
to earnest expectancy. The pupils should keep within 
sound of the teacher's voice (a sharp whistle may be used) 
and shonld pronptly respond to every call. Topics of 
c.onversations should as far as possible be restricted to 
those pertaining to the object of the excursion or related 
matters. 

In visiting woods, children should be trained to study 
flower. in their environment and leave them there, plucking 
or digging for none except for some excellent reason. The 
same respect should be shown to birds and their nests, and 
to insects, and all other living things encountered. 



THE EXCURSION 27 

TIIE TEACHER'S EXCURSIONS 

As soon as possible after cominz to a section, the teacher 
should acquaint himself with the woods, groves, streams, or 
other haunts that may provide him with lnaterial for his 
indoor or outdoor work. tie can then direct the pupils 
effecti'ely. The teacher should go o'er the route of an 
excursion slmrtly before it takes place. This prevents waste 
of time in looking for the objects that he wishes his pupils 
to see. ]f the teacher wishes to increase his love for nature. 
he must take many walks without his pupils. 
The school garden offers a partial solution of the diffi- 
culties meltioned above. It brings a large anmunt of 
material to the doors of the school. Plants of the farm 
or the garden may be studied under various changeable 
conditions, and it will be seen that insect pests, weeds, and 
fungous diseases follow the lessons on plants, while lessons 
on birds and toads follow those on insects. With sections 
of the garden devoted to the cultivation of wild flowers. 
ferns, and forest trees, the specially organized excursion 
will become les. of a necessity, although it will still con- 
tirade to be a valuable factor in Nature .tudv work. 
After an excursion is over, it should be discussed in 
class. The various facts learned should be reviewed and 
related. If any pupil. lave madc inaccurate observations, 
they should be reqired to observe again to correct their 
errors. Finally, the excursi,m may form the subject of a 
composition. 

A TYPE EXCURSION 

A Bird's Nest.The children have been instructed to. 
study the meadow-lark, beginning about March twenty- 
first. While engaged in this work, a nest is discovered 



28 NATURE STUDY 

near the school. The teacher is informed and the pupils 
are conducted to the spot. 
What is growing in the field? Is there a long or a 
short growth? lid the mother bird make much noise as 
she rose from the nest? Did this help to reveal its pres- 
ence ? " Is the nest easy to see ? The class will halt a few 
paces from it and try to find it. IIow many eggs? Their 
,',,h,ur? Note the arch of grass so beautifully concealing 
the nest. 
Returning to school, the facts observed are reviewed. 
The pupils may then express themselves by written eom- 
l,,,siti,,n t,r l,v drawings, paintings, or modellings of the 
nest. the e.., or the surroundings. Frequent visits to 
the nest should not be nmde, and the pupils should be 
warned not to disturh the bird. as she may desert the nest 
(,n slight provocation. 
A second excursion may he made, when the eggs are 
hatched, t,, see the young birds. 
A Wasp's Nest.--A nest having been discovered, 
the pupils note how it is suspended and how it is situated 
with regard to eoneeahnent or to protection from rain, its 
,.,dour, the material of tile nest, and the position of the 
entrance. Is the opening ever deserted? How many 
wasps enter and how many leave the nest in a minute? 
Try to follow one and watch what he does. Wasps may 
be found biting wood from an old board fence. This they 
chew into pulp. and from this pulp their paper is made. 
(et the children to verify this 1)y observations. If the nest 
is likely t,, become a nuisance, smoke out tile wasps, take 
the nest carefully down, and use it for indoor study, 
examining the inside of the nest to ascertain the nature 
and the structure of the comb whirls, in this case, is en- 
tirely devoted to ]arv,. 



CHAPTER II 

PHYSICAL S('IEN('E PIIASE 
OF NATURE STUDY 

INSTRUCTIONS AND GENERAL METHOD 
THE preceding portions of this Manual dealt with living 
things. There is another phase of Nature Study which 
has a more direct relation to the physical sciences, 
('hemistry and Physics, two subjects that are essentially 
experimental in their methods. 
Although the lessons that follow are grouped in one 
portion of this book, the teacher should understand that 
he is to introduce them into his work as the occasion de. 
mands. They may be used to throw light on other parts 
of the school work. The experimental method is some- 
what advanced for young children, hence no lessons are 
outlined for Forms | and II. :I, ungraded school, Forms 
III and IV may be combined for the subject. It will be 
found most convenient to take this portion of the Nature 
Study during the winter months. 

VALUE OF SUCH LESSONS 
l. They are ittcrestitg, hence there is attention. The 
senses must be alert, hence pupils are trained to observe 
accurately. 
2. After the experiment comes the inference, hence 
reasoning powers are developed. 
3. They enable the teacher to make exceedingly con- 
crete some vcry difficult abstract principles. 
4. They can be correlated with a large number of 
other subjects and made to have a beneficial influence on 
the whole of the school work. 
42 



PHYSICAL SCIENCE 43 

5. The great advance that is being made in all useful 
inventions to-day is largely due to the study of the physical 
sciences. Many boys and girls (seventy-five per cent.) 
never attend the lligh S(.hool. The ElenIentary 
owes them a taste at least of these sciences that have such a 
bearing on their lives, that bare surrounded them with 
so many mechanical contrivances for their comfort and 
convenience, and that explain so many common natural 
phenomena. Give a boy a taste for experimental science, 
and there is some chance tlmt after leaving school lie will 
not throw aside his studies to subsist intellectually on the 
newspaper, but that lie will continue to investigate for 
himself, and make himself a well-informed man, an 
influential man in his section. The Elementary School 
must aim at fitting the boys and girls for life. 
6. The advent (2f the experiment marks the downfall 
of superstition, prejudice, and reliance on authority and 
tradition. To lead a child to think for himself is a great 
achievement. 
7. The use of the experiment in gaining knowledge 
will result in a cautiousness in accepting statements and 
making decisions. 
CONDITIONS UNDER WIIICH EXPERIIIENTS 
SHOULD BE PERFORm, lED 
1. They should be introduced into the school work 
naturally, as answers to questions which arise either in 
the regular course of the work or from suggestions made 
by the teacher at appropriate times. 
2. As far as possible, the pupils should assist in per- 
forming the experiment. In small rural schools the 
scarcity of apparatus will necessitate the teacher's doing 
most of the work. In Form V classes and Continuation 
,%.hools the pupils may do the experiments individually. 



REFERENCE BOOK 45 

LIST OF REFERENCE BOOKS AND BULLETINS 
GARDEN AND PLANT STUDY 
Bulletins of the Ontario Department of Agriculture, Toronto. 
Bulletins of the Dominion Department of Agriculture, Ottawa. 
Improvement of School Grounds. Department of Education, 
Toronto. 
Atkinson .............. First Studies of Plant Life. Ginn & Co. 
60 cents. 
Bailey ................. Manual of Gardening. Macmillan Co. 
$2.00, 
lqlanchan .............. Nature's Garden. Doubleday Co. $2.00. 
Comstock, A. 1I ....... Handbook of Nature Study. Corn- 
stock Pub. Co. $3.25. 
Gray .................. Field, Forest, and Garden Botany. 
Amer. Book Co. $1.40. 
Green, Louise .......... Among School Gardens. Charities 
Pub. Co. $1.25. 
Hodge ................. Nature Study and Life. Ginn & Co. 
$1.50. 
Holtz .................. Nature Study. Scribners' Sons. $1.50. 
Jackson and Dougherty. Agriculture through the Laboratory 
and School Garden. Judd. $1.50. 
James ................. Agriculture. Appleton & Co. 80 cents. 
Keeler ............... Our Native Trees. Scribners' Sons. 
$2.00. 
Osterhout .............. Experiments with Plants. lIacmillan 
Co. $1.50. 
Parsons ............... How to Plan the Home Grounds. 
Doubleday Co. $1.00. 
Sergeant .............. Corn Plants. Houghton, Miin Co. 
75 cents. 
PHYSICAL SCIENCE 
Miller ................. Minerals and How They Occur. The 
Copp, Clark Co. $1.50. 
MiIHken and Gale ...... First Course in Physics. Ginn & Co. 
$2.00. 
Newman ............... Laboratory Exercises. Ginn & Co. 
10c. each. 



46 NATURE STUDY 

Remsen ............... College Chemistry. Am. Pub. Co. $2.50. 
Simmons andSyenhouseScience of Common Life. The Mac- 
millan Company. $1.00. 
Woodhull .............. Home-made Apparatus. 
High School Text-books. 

ANIMAL STUDY 

Bulletin No. 52. Dominion Department of Agriculture, 
Ottawa. 
Bulletin No. 134. Ontario Department of Agriculture, Toronto. 
Bulletin No. 161. Ontario Department of Agriculture, Toronto. 
Bulletin No. 124. Ontario Department of Agriculture, Toronto. 
Reports of Entomological Society of Ontario. Department of 
Education. 
Fishes of Ontario. Nash. Department of Education. 
Bailey and Coleman .... First Course in Biology. The Mac- 
millan Company. $1.25. 
Buchanan ............. Senior Country Reader. The Mac- 
millan Company. 40 cent. 
Chapman .............. Bird Life. Appleton. $2.00. 
Crawford .............. Guide to Nature Study. The Copp, 
Clark Co. 90 cents. 
Dearness .............. How to Teach the Nature Study Course. 
The Copp, Clark Co. 60 cents. 
Jordan and Kellogg .... Animal Life. Appleton & Co. $1.20. 
Kellogg ............... Elementary Zoology. Holt & Co. $1.35. 
Reed .................. Bird GuideParts I and II. Musson 
Book Co., Toronto. 40 cents each. 
Shaler ................ .Domesticated Animals. Scribners' Sons. 
$2.50. 
Silcox and Stevenson..Modern Nature Study. The Macmillan 
Company. 75 cents. 

NOTE.--The bulletins named above are supplied free to 
schools. Chemical and Physical Apparatus and Entomological 
Supplies may be obtained from G. M. Hendry Co., Victoria 
Street, Toronto. Rocks and Minerals may be obtained from 
the Ward Natural Science establishment, Rochester, or from 
the Central Scientific Co., Chicago. 



48 NATURE STUDY 

Covered copper wire .................................. 10 
Small compass ....................................... 50 
Glass model of common pump ........................ 1.00 
Globe for weighing air ............................... 2.50 
Small piece of platinum foil,  in. by 2 in ................ 25 
Glass prism 60 ........................................ 50 
Tuning fork 42 in .................................... 50 
Electric bell ......................................... 50 
Motor (Ajax) ....................................... 1.50 
Balance ............................................. 10.00 
Air-pump ........................................... 15.00 
Iron wire gauze ...................................... 05 
Sheet metals, iron, copper, zinc, lead, aluminum ........ 25 
2 lamp chimneys, straight ones preferred, at 10c ....... 20 
Iron ball, 2 in. in diameter ........................... 20 
2 dairy thermometers at 15c ........................... 30 

CIIEMICALS 

Sulphuric acid, 1 lb .................................... 10 
Hydrochloric acid, $ oz ................................ 10 
Nitric acid, 4 oz ...................................... 10 
Washing soda ........................................ 05 
Sugar ................................................ 05 
Salt ................................................. 05 
Blue vitriol ......................................... 10 
Alum ................................................ 05 
Saltpetre ............................................. 05 
Sulphur .............................................. 05 
Potass. permanganate ................................ 05 
Lime ................................................. 05 
Plaster-paris ......................................... 05 
Potass. bichromate ................................... 10 
Methylated spirits, 1 pt ................................ 10 
Alcohol, 95% ......................................... 10 
Iodine crystals ....................................... 10 

Mercury, 1 lb ........................................ 1.00 
Pot. chlorate ...................................... :. .15 
Manganese dioxide .10 



TIME APPORTIONED TO NATURE STUDY b3 

To break glass bottles, make neatly a deep cut with a 
file, then touch the glass near the cut with a red-hot wire. 
When a crack appears, move the hot wire and the crack 
will follow. Several hearings may be necessary. 
In the case of a heavy glass bottle, file the cut as before, 
wrap the bottle with string dipped in alcohol, light it, and 
after it has burned, plunge the bottle vertically into cohl 
water. 
Melted paraffin is good for closing small leaks. 

TIME APPORTIONED TO NATURE STUDY 

The Nature Study lesson should be given a definite 
place on the time-table. It is recommended that each class 
should have at least one lesson of fifteen minutes in 
length, a week. In addition to this. about five minutes a 
week should be spent in assigning problems for out-of-door 
wtrk and in discussing the observations which the pupils 
have made on problems previously assigned. 



CHAPTER 11I 

FORM I 

AUTUMN 

GARDEN WORK 

O the re-opening of school after the summer holidays, 
the pupils should see that their plots are put into good 
order without delay. If they have been neglected during 
the holidays, a good deal of attention will be needed, and 
in some cases it may not be possible to reclaim them 
because of prolonged neglect. If such plots are found, they 
should be cleaned off completely, spaded up, and left in 
readiness for planting the following spring. All plots 
should be cultivated throughout the month of September 
to keep the soil mellow and prevent the growth of weeds. 
The pupils should be allowed to pick flowers from their 
own plots, but should always leave a few in bloom for the 
sake of the general appearance of the garden. Paths 
should be kept clean, and all rubbish, weeds, dead plants, 
etc., removed to the compost heap, which should be in the 
least conspicuous part of the garden. Hoes. rakes, and 
claw-hand weeders should be used in cleaning up and 
cultivating the plots. The soil should be kept fine and 
loose on top to prevent drying out. 
54 



56 NATURE STUDY 

lIence, what is one use of the root? 
A pupil is asked to pull the plant out of the soil in the 
flower-pot. What is another use that you have disco'ered 
for the root? 
The plant is now uprooted from the soil, and the pupils 
examine the root to find how it is fitted for gathering 
water and food from the soil and for holding the plant iu 
place. 
Note the number of branches touching a great deal of 
soil and also the twisted form of the roots for grasping the 
soil. 
The form of the leaves is studied by the pupils, and, as 
a test of the accuracy of their observation, they are asked 
to pick out the pansy leaves from the pile of leaves. 
To the teacher.--The pupils must be active participants 
in the lesson. They must use their eyes, hands, and even 
their noses in gaining first-hand impressions, and they are 
to be required h, express in their own way the things that 
they discoxer. The beafitiful flower with its face like that 
of an animal is an appeal to the child's imagination, and 
the child's interest in the use of things is utilized in the 
study of the relations of root, stem, and flower. 
This lesson may be used as the basis for busy work by 
means of the following correlations: 
1. With art: 
Represent the flower in colours. 
2. With reading and literature: 
The pupils are required to express the meaning 
and sentiment of the following stanza: 
The pansy wakes In early spring 
To make our world more bright; 
/kll summer long its happy faco 
Fil], hlltlre with liht. 



TWIGS AND BUDS 63 

Answers are required fr,,m tile pnpils separately. TILe 
pupil's answer in each ease should be sutlieiently dear for 
all the elass to recognize the feature that tile answer is 
intended to describe. A few brief questions will guide the 
answerer in making his descriptiou more definite, but the 
description should be the result of the lmpil's observation 
and expressed in his t, wn words. 
The meanin or use of each feature sh,,uld bc dis,.usse,1. 
when possible, immediately after it has 1,een described. 
The following features will he discovered and the 
problems snggested will Ie soh'ed: 
The brmvn (,r greenish-brmvn bark. 
The buds. 
One bud (sometimes two) is at the en,l of the twi. 
Some buds are along the side of tile twig. 
What caused the ed lind to grow larer than the 
others ? 
There is a leaf sear under each bud. 
Of what use is it to the bud to he between the twig 
and the leaf stalk ? 
The bands of rings, one or more on each twig. 
The tiny oval pores, each snrrounded bv a little raised 
band. 
The detailed study of the buds is left for a separate lesson. 

FURTHER STUDY OF TWIGS 

The study in detail of various features is illustrated in 
the following" 
L.ok closely at the leaf scars a,l describe them fully, 
as to shape, colour, and marks. 
Do the scars look like fresh wounds, or are they healed 
over? Of what use t,, tile tree is the bealin,.., of the scar? 



TWIGS AND BUDS 65 

LESSON ON BUDS 
Materials.- Twigs and buds of horse-chestnut, one fq,r 
each pupil. An opening bud. (A bud or a twig placed in 
water in a warm room will develop rapidly.) 
Lesson.--Distribute specimens, and review the posi- 
tions of the buds. 
Pupils examine the buds and tell all they can about 
them. They describe the colour, shape, and size of the 
buds, and also their gummy and scalelike covering. 
Of what use are the gum and scales ? Of what use is 
the brown colour of the bud ? 
They next find out what is inside the little brown 
house. They open the buds and try to identify tile con- 
tents. There will be some uncertainty as to the neanirrg 
of the contents. Leave this over till spring. 
To tle teacber.--The brown colour of the 1,ud makes it 
an al$orbent of sunlight, and also serves as a protection 
from observation by the sharp eyes of bud-eating birds. 
The gummy scales are waterproof, and the scales, by 
spreading open gTadually, cause the waterproof property 
to be retained even after the bud has grown quite large. 
The inner part of the bud is composed of two, four, or six 
tiny leaves folded up and supported on a short bit of stem. 
Some of the buds have, in addition to leaves, a tiny young 
flower cluster. All of these things are densely covered with 
white down. The down is the fur coat to protect the 
tender parts from the cold. 

REVIEW LESSON 
Review the lesson on buds, but substitute buds of the 
lilac or apple for the horse-chestnut buds of the original 
lesson. 



68 NATURE STUDY 

Drill. -- Pupils pick out the shape named. 
Pupils name the plant to which each belongs. 
Which shape do you think is the prettiest ? 

GARDEN STUDIES 

If the pupils of this Form have planted and cared for 
garden plots of their own, they will have a greater love 
for the flowers or vegetables that grow in them than for 
any others in the garden, becau they have watched their 
development throughout. For them such continuous ob- 
servation cannot but result in a quickening of perception 
and a deepening of interest and appreciation. 

STUDIES IN THE PUPIL'S INDIVIDUAL PLOT 

What plant is the first to appear above ground ? What 
plant is the last to appear ? Describe what each plant was 
like when it first appeared above ground. What plants 
grow the fastest? What effect has cold weather, warm 
weather, dry weather, on the growth of the plants? 
What weeds grow in the plot? 
Why do these weeds obstruct the growth of the other 
plants ? 
What kind of root has each weed ? 
Find out what kind of seeds each weed produces? 
Why is each weed hard to keep out of fields ? 
What garden plants produce flowers ? 
How are the seeds protected ? 
Compare the seeds with those that you planted. 
Select the seeds of the largest plants and finest flowers 
for next year's seeding. 



74 NATURE STUDY 

Watch the rabbit moving. How does a rabbit move? 
Which legs are the more useful for hopping ? How are 
the hind legs fitted for making long hops ? 
Why is the rabbit able to defend itself by kicking with 
its hind feet? Find out how the rabbit is fitted for 
burrowing. 
Listen carefully and find out whether the rabbit makes 
much noise while moving. Of what advantage is it to the 
rabbit to moe silently? 
Find out, by examining the feet of the rabbit, what 
causes it to make very little noise. 
How are rabbit. prepared for living during cold 
weather ? 
Test the ability of tile rabbit to hear faint noises. Why 
is it necessary for the rabbit to be able to hear faint sounds ? 
How is it fitted for hearing faint sounds? 
Examine the teeth and find out how they are fitted for 
gnawing. 
To the teacher.--The long. strong, hind legs of the 
rabbit are bent in the form of levers and enable the animal 
to take long, quick hops. 
When the rabbit attacks, it frequently defends itself by 
vigorous kicks with its hind feet, which are armed with 
long, strong claws. Ernest Thompson-.qeton's story of 
Molly Cottontail and "Ragg3"lug" , in Wild Animals I 
Have Kwwn, contains an interesting account of how 
Mlly rescued Raggy from a snake by this manner of 
fighting. The rabbit has many enemies, hence it has need 
of large, movable ears to aid its acute sense of hearing. 
The thick pads of hair on the soles of its feet enable it to 
move noiselessly. The thick, soft. inner hair keeps the 
animal warm, while the longer, stiffer, outer hair sheds tile 
rain. 

! ! 



76 NATURE STUDY 

pupil's knowledge of the cat to furnish these statements 
of fact during a conversation lesson: 
The cat goes about at night as readily as during the day. 
cat can hear faint noises quite readily. 
cat can walk noiselessly. 
cat creeps along until it is close to its prey, then 
upon it, and seizes it with its claws. 
cat enjoys attention and purrs if it is stroked 

eat likes to sleep in a warm place. 
eat can fight viciously with her claws. 
cat keeps her fur smooth and clean and 
well brushed with her paws. 

The 
The 
The 
pounces 
The 
gently. 
The 
The 
The 
whiskers 

her 

The cat eats birds, mice, rats, meat, fish, milk, bread. 
and cake. 
DETAILED STUDY 
Base the study of the details upon the facts of habit, 
movements, instincts, etc., which were developed in the 
preceding lesson. 
Observations.--Find out how the cat's feet are fitted 
for giving a noiseless tread. 
Find the claws. 
How are the claws fitted for seizing prey ? 
How are the claws protected from being made dull by 
striking against objects when the cat is walking? 

THE PIGEON 
A pigeon is kept in a cage in the school-room and the 
pupi|s observe: its size as compared with that of other 
birds; outline of body, including shape of head; the 
feathers, noting quill feathers, and covering or contour 
feathers; manner of feeding and drinking ; movements, as 
walking, flying, tumbling. 



THE PIGEON 77 

The owner or the teacher describes the dove-cot, the 
necessity of keeping it clean, the use of tobacco stems for 
killing vermin in the nest, the two white eggs, the habits 
of male and female in taking turns in hatching, the 
parents' habit of half digesting the food in their own crops 
and then pouring it into the crops of the young, the rapid 
growth of the young, the next pair of young hatched before 
the first pair is full-fledged. 
Descriptions of the habits of one or more well-known 
varieties---pouters, fantails, homing pigeons, etc. Read 
stories of the training and flights of homing pigeons, from 
Ernest Thompson-Seton's Arnex. 

JORE DETAILED STUDY FOR CLASS WORK 

f'ompare the uses of the quill and contour feathers. 
Find out how these two kinds differ in texture; the differ- 
ences fitting them for their difference in function. The 
names quill and contour may be replaced by some simple 
names, as feathers for flying and feathers for covering the 
body. 
Study the adaptati.ns for flight, noting the smooth 
body surface, the overlapping feathers of the wing for 
lifting the bird upward as the wing comes down. the long 
wing bones, the strong breast, and the covering of feathers 
giving lightness and warmth. The warmth and lightness 
of feathers is illustrated by the feather boas worn by 
ladies. 
Examine the feet and find out why pigeons are able 
to perch on trees. 
Examine the beak, mouth, tongue, nostrils, eyes, ears. 
Ilow is the bill adapted for picking up grains and .eeds ? 



78 NATURE STUDY 

OBSERVATION AND CARE OF 
WINTER-BLOOMING PLANTS 

Children are most interested in things which they own 
and t'are f,r themselves. If a child plants a bulb or a slip 
and succeeds in bringing it to maturity, it will be to him 
the mo.t interesting and, at the same time, will bring him 
more into sympathy with plants wherever he may find them. 
The teacher should impress upon the pupil the desirability 
of having beautiful flowers in the hon,e in winter, when 
there are noue to be had out-of-doors. 
Every lmpiI should be encouraged to have one plant at 
least, and the bulbs planted in October and stored away 
in the dark in the home cellar will require a good deal of 
('are and afford an excellent opportunity for charring plant 
_*rowtb and the development of flowers. If the pots have 
I,een strafed in a cool cellar and have been kept slightly 
moist, the bulbs will have made sufficient root growth in a 
month and should be brought up into a warmer room 
where they can get some sunshine every day. The pupils 
will make a report each week as to what changes are 
noticeable in the growing plant. They will note the 
appearance of pale green shoots, which later develop into 
leaves and at least one flower stalk. They should make a 
drawing once every week and show it to the teacher, and 
the teacher should make it a point to see a number of the 
pupils' plants by calling at their homes. In this way the 
pupils come to know what plants need for their develop- 
ment in the way of soil, water, light, and heat. This in- 
terest will soon be extended, until, in a very few years, the 
children will add new and beautiful plants to the home 
r.olleetion and assmne the responsibility of earing for all of 
them. 



TREES 79 

TREES 

PINES OF THE LOCALITY 

This study may be commenced in November after tim 
deciduous trees have lost their leaves and have entered their 
quiescent winter period. This is the time when the ever- 
greens stand out so prominently on the landscape in su,'h 
sharp contrast with the others that have becn stripped of 
their broad leaves and now lo,,k },are and lifeless. If no 
pines are to be found in the vicinity, balsam or spruce may 
be substituted. The lessons should, as far as possible, be 
observational. The pupils should be encouraged to make 
some observations for themselves out of school. At leact 
one lesson should be conducted out-of-doors, a suitable 
pine tree having been selected beforehand for the purpose. 
The following method might serve as a guide in the study 
of any species of tree. 

THE WHITE PINE 

FIEL|} EXER['ISES 

Have the pupils observe the shape and height ,f the 
tree from a distance, tracing the outline with the finger. 
Compare the shape o this tree with that of other ever- 
greens and also with that of the broad-leafed trees, tIave 
them describe in what particulars the shapes differ in 
different trees. They will come to realize that the differ- 
ence in shape results from difference in length, direction. 
and arrangement of branches. They may notice that other 
evergreen trees resemble the pine in that the stems are all 
straight and extend as a gradually tapering shaft from the 
bottom to the top, that all have a more or less conical shape, 
and that the branches grow nmre or less straight out from 



80 NATURE STUDY 

the main stem, not slanting off as in the case of the maples 
and elms. 
Coming close to the tree, the pupils may first examine 
the trunk. By using a string or tape-line, find its diameter 
and how big it is around. Tell them how big some ever- 
greens are (the giant trees of the :Pacific Coast are some- 
times over forty feet around). Have them notice where 
the trunk is largest, and let them find out why a tree needs 
to be so strong at the ground. Heavy wind puts a great 
strain on it just at this point. Illustrate by taking a long 
slat or lath, drive it into the ground firmly, and then, 
catching it by the top, push it over. It will break off just 
at the ground. If a little pine tree could be taken up, 
the pupils would be interested in seeing what long, strong, 
fibrous roots the pine has. 
Let them examine the ],ark of the trunk and describe 
its colour and roughness. The fissures iu the bark, which 
are caused by the enlarging of the tree by the formation 
of new wood under the bark, are deeper at the bottom of 
the tree than at the top, the tree being younger ad the 
bark thimer the nearer to the top we go. 
Let the pupils look np into the tree from beneath and 
then go a little distawe away and look at it. They will 
notice how bare the hranr'hes are on the insile, and the 
teacher will probably have to explain why this is so. They 
will discover that the leaves are nearly all out toward the 
ends of the branches as they get light there, while the 
centre of the tree top is shaded, and the great question that 
every tree must try to solve is how to get most light for 
its leaves. The pnpils will now see an additional reason 
why the lower limbs should be longer than the upper ones. 
The greater lenh of the lower limbs brings the leaves out 
into the sunlight. 



TREES 81 

The reason for calling this tree an "evereen " may 
now be considered. Why it retains its leaves all winter is 
a problem for more advanced classes; but if the question 
is asked, the teacher may get over the difficulty by ex- 
plaining to the class that the leaves are so small, and yet 
so hardy, that wind, frost, or snow does not injure .them. 
Each pupil may bring a small branch or twig back to the 
school-room for use in a class-room lesson. 

CLASS-RO01I LESSON 
Materials.--Small branches--one for each pupil, cones, 
bark, pieces of pine board. 
Introduction.--Review the general features of the pine 
that were observed in the field lesson. 
Observations. --The branches are distributed. Pupils 
test the strength and suppleness of the branches and find 
the gummy nature of the surface. 
Of what value are these qualities to the tree during 
winter storms ? 
Examine the texture, stiffness, and fineness of the 
needles. 
:Note that the needles are in little bunches. How many 
are in each bunch ? 
Are there any buds on the branches ? 
If so, where are the buds ? 
How are the buds protected from rain ? 
The pupils examine the cones and describe their general 
shape. 
The pupils are asked to break open the tough scales 
and find the seeds. 
Allow the seeds to fall through the air, and thus the 
pupils will discover the use of the wings attached to the 
seeds. 



NATURE STUDY 

The wood is next examined, its colour and odour are 
noted, and its hardness is tested. 
Find articles in the school-room that are made of pine 
WO0(]. 
ELM 
The following topics are suggested for aiding in the 
selection of matter for a lesson on a typical broad-leafed 

tree : 
The 
The 
The 
The 
the top. 
(Pry 
The 
The 

height of the tree. 
part of the height that is composed of tree tops. 
umbrella shape or dome shape of the top. 
gracefully drooping branches of the outer part of 

to find other trees with tops like that of fle elm. 
diameter of the think. 
diameter is almost uniform up to the branches. 
The branches all come off from one point, like the ribs 
of all umbrella. 
The thick bark, that of the old trees being marked by 
deep furrows. 
The birds that make their nests in the ehn. 
In spring find and examine the flowers, fruits, seeds, 
and also the leaves. 

FIELD EXERCISE 

A good out-of-door exercise to follow the general lesson 
outlined above, is to require the pupils to find all the elm 
trees or a numl;er of elm brees growing in the locality and 
to describe their Ideation and the kind of soil on which 
they grow. 
The maple, oak, horse-chestnut, and apple are also suit- 
able trees upon which to base lessons for Form I. 



DOMESTIC ANIMALS 83 

DOMESTIC ANIMALS 

Domestic animals not only furnish suitable subjects for 
observation work, but also afford good opportunities for 
developirg that sympathetic interest in animal life which 
will cause the pupils to more nearly appreciate the useful 
animals and to treat them more humanely. 

THE HORSE 

Introduction.-- By means of a conversation with the 
pupils, find out what they know about the horse and lead 
them to think about his proper treatment. 
Lesson.--The matter and method are suggested by the 
following: 
What are the different thing. for which horses are 
useful ? 
What kinds of horses are m,,st useful for hauling heavy 
loads ? 
Why are they most useful? 
What kiuds are the most useful for general farm work ? 
Why are they the most useful ? 
What kinds are the most useful for driving? 
Are there any other animals that would he as useful 
as the horse for all these things? 
What causes some horses to be lean and weary while 
others are fat and brisk? 
What kinds of stables should horses have as to warmth, 
dryness, and fresh air? 
Why is it cruel to put a frosty bit into a horse's mouth ? 
W-hen a horse is warm from driving on a cold day, 
how should he be protected if hitched out-of-doors? 



DOMESTIC BIRDS 85 

learn that, in return for his good services, the horse should 
be treated with kindness and consideration. 
The legs of the horse are long, straight, and strong, 
and the single toe (or hoof) means that the horse walks 
on the tip of one toe, and the hoof is in reality a large toe 
nail developed to protect the tip of the toe. To these 
features is due the great speed of the horse. IIorses gather 
together in the field with the foals in the most protected 
part of the group, just as wild horses found it necessary to 
do for protection. The wild horses "shied " at a fierce 
enemy concealed in the grass, and the tame horse shies 
at a strange object. 
CORRELATIONS 
With literature and reading: By interpretation of Tle 
Bell of A tri. 
With language: By exercise on new words, as graceful, 
etc. 

DOMESTI(' BI RDS 

THE DUCK 

Home Observations.--Colnpare the duck and the 
drake as to size, colouring, calls, and other sounds. 
Observe the position of the birds when standing. 0b- 
sere their mode of walking, of swimnfing, and of flying. 
Where do they prefer to make their nests? Why is the 
duck nmre plain in dress than the drake? What is the 
shape, size, and build of the nest? Describe the eggs. 
When does the duck sleep ? Why can it not sleep upon a 
perch as hens do ? How do ducks feed on land ? Compare 
with the feeding of hens. Observe how ducks feed when 
in water. Observe the various souncks, as alarm notes, call 
notes, social sounds 



86 NATURE STUDY 

Describe the preening of the feathers and explain the 
meaning of it. 
Compare the appearance of the young ducks with that 
of the older ones. Do the young ducks need to be taught 
to swim ? 

CI.ASS-IIO0.I LESSON 

Provide, where convenient, a ,luck for class study. 
Observations.--('olour, size, general shape of the 
body, and the relation of the shape to ease of swimming; 
divisions of the body. 
Size of head, length of neck, and the relation of the 
length of the neck to the habit of feeding in water. 
The legs and web feet, and the relation of these to the 
bird's awkward walking and ease in swimming. 
The bill an.l its relation to the bird's habits of feeding 
by sc(,Ting things fr,,m the ltt,m of the water and then 
strainiug the water out. The sensitive tip of the bill by 
which the ,luck can feel the food. 
The h, athcrs, their warmth, an,1 compactness for shed- 
ding water. The oil spread over them during the preening 
is useful as a protection against water. 
The bill, feet. and feathers should be compared with 
the, so of the hen and Zor,se, and reasons for the similarities 
and differences should be discussed. 
The uses that people make of ducks and their feathers 
and eggs; the gathering of eider-down. 
For desk work, make drawings of the duck when swim- 
ruing, flying, and standing. 



BIRDS 

The pupils should observe the above features, and also 
the movements, seizing of prey breathing, moulting, semi- 
resting or pupa stage, at the close of which the pupa 
climbs up a reed or stalk of grass and bursts the skin from 
which the adult emerges. 
The pupils should put into the aquarium various kinds 
of insects and decide what foods are preferred by the larva 
and the adult. 

Observe.--Tbe size, length of body, movements in 
flight, lace-like wings, and insect-killing habits of the 
dragon-fly. 
Should dragon-flies be protected? Give reasons. Are 
all dragon-flies of the same size, build, and colour? At 
what time of year are dragon-flies most numerous? 
Referenee.--Sileox and Stevenson: Modern Natre Study 

OTHER CONSPICUOUS INSECTS 

The potato-beetle, giant water-bug, eastern swallow-tail 
butterfly, and promothea moth are insects suitable as types 
to be studied by the pupils of Form I. The giant water- 
bug is the large, broad, grayish-brown insect that is found 
on the sidewalks in May and June mornings. (For in- 
formation on the eastern swallow-tail and promothea see 
Metamorphosis, in Butterfly and M,Jth Collections.) 

Bird studies for Form I should be limited to observa- 
tions made directly upon a few common birds, such as the 
robin, house-sparrow (English), song-sparrow, flicker, 
house-wren, crow, bronzed grackle, and meadow'-lark. 
These are easily reached by the pupils of every rural and 
village school, and the purpose of the lessons should be to 



96 NATURE STUDY 

teach the pupils to recognize these birds, and by making 
use of child interest in living active creatures, to develop 
their interest in birds. 

THE ROBIN 

FIELD EXEECISES 
Observe the robins and find out the following things: 
1. Are all robins of the same colour? If not of the 
same colour, what difference do you note? 
2. Does the bird run or hop? Imitate its movements. 
3. Listen to its sottg. I it sweet or harsh? Is it, loud 
or low ? Is it cheerful or gloomy ? 
4. Watch the rubin as it moves along the grass and 
learn how it finds out where the worms are. 
To the teacber.--The pupils should be given a few days 
in which to find out answers to these questions, and at the 
end of that time the answers should be discussed in the 
class. 
Male robins have more pronounced colours than female 
robins. The beak is yellower, the breast is brighter, the 
back and the top of the head are darker. Robins both run 
and hop. The sense of sight of the robin is very acute, but 
its sense of hearing is even more keen. The bird may be 
observed turning its head to one side to listen for the 
sound of a worm which is still inside its burrow. 
II 
A second set of exercises may now be assigned which 
will demand a more detailed study of the bird, namely, a 
study of the size, colour, form of body, manner of flight, 
and length of beak. 



98 1NIATURE STUDY 

Try to interpret the song in the words: 
" hIaids! Maids! Maids! Put on the tea-kettle, tea- 
kettle, tea-kettle, tea-kettle, tea-kettle-cttle." 
Is the song bright and cheerful or dull and gloomy? 
Does the bird sing this song often? 
Approach close to the bird. Are there any stripes or 
spots on its breast or head ? 
Describe the flight of the bird from its perch, when 
it is disturbed. 
To tle teacler.--It is possible for the pupils to dis- 
tinguisb the solg-sparrow by means of the above exercises. 
it is one of the first hirds to return in the sprilg, and, as 
it is a lusty singer, it will attract the attention of all who 
are looking for birds. The dark brown spot i, the cenlre 
of the breast is a distinguishing mark, and the more 
c,bservant will find the three ashy-gray stripes on its head 
aad the dark line through the eye. 
When disturbed, it does not rise into the air, but flies 
dowmvard and disappears with a swish of its tail. The 
nest is usually built on the ground or in a low bush or tree. 
I t is c.mposed of grass, fine roots, or weed stems, and lined 
with fine grass or hair. The eggs are usually four or five. 
but sometimes there are as many as seven. They are white 
with a greenish-blue tint and are closely spotted with 
brown. 
CLASS-ROO2I LESSON 
Discuss with the pupils the observations that they have 
made on the field exercises. 
Generalize as to the similarity of the places in which 
the pupils have seen the sparrow singing, and as to the 
times of day in which the bird sings. 



THE SHEEP 99 

Teach the marks of identification which some have 
discovered, using for this purpose pictures of the bird or 
black-board drawings; and encourage those who have not 
yet seen the song-sparrow to try again and to secure the 
assistance of those who have succeeded. 
Compare the size and form of the song-sparrow with 
that of the house-sparrow (English). 
Tell the pupils the great value of the bird in killing 
cutworms, plant-lice, caterpillars, ground-beetles, grass- 
hoppers, flies, and other insects. It also helps to prevent 
the spread of weeds by eating thousands of seeds of noxious 
weeds. 
Assign the pupils some other things to discover, as for 
example: Through how many months of the summer does 
the bird sing? Find the nest. Why is it hard to find? 
Describe the eggs, as to size, colour, and number. Do not 
disturb the nest and do not visit it very often. 
To the teacher.--Base lessons in bird shady upon the 
English sparrow, flicker, wren, and mead3w-lark. 

THE SHEEP 

PIIOBLEIIS FOR FIELD wortK 
How do sheep find one another when they have become 
sepffrated ? 
How old are the lambs before they can keep up with 
the old sheep when running? What fits the lamb for run- 
ning so well ? 
Watch the lambs when they are playing, and find out 
whether they play: 
1. I'm the king of the castle. 
. Follow the leader. 



102 NATURE STUDY 

ing should remain until the tips of the bulbs are showing 
above ground, when it should be removed. Ordinarily 
the bulbs may be left a second year before digging up. 
They should then be reset or replaced with new ones, and 
the bed made and fertilized as before. 
In clay soil the lmlbs should not he set quite so deep 
as in sandy soil, and the bulbs hae better ,lraiuage about 
their roots if a handful of sand is placed under each bulb 
in planting. 
Crocus bulbs may be planted ill clumps anywhere about 
the grounds or borders by simply making a small hole 
about five inches deep, dropping the bulb in, and covering 
it. Lily of the valley grows best in partial shade in some 
lmfrequented corner. 

PLANTING OI" BULBS INDOORS 
Read again the instructions given under this heading 
in Form I work, regarding soil, planting, and care. The 
Chinese sacred lily and trumpet narcissus may be chosen 
f-r the pupils of this Form. The narcissus, also called 
daffodil, may he held back until early spring if kept in a 
cool, dark cellar, hut the Chinese sacred lily, which is also 
a variety of narcissus, comes int, bloom from four to six 
weeks after planting. It is usually grown in water in a 
bow! of suitable size. Place a few pieces of charcoal in 
the bottom c,f the bowl, set the hulb upon them, and pack 
coloured stones and shells around it as a support. Keep 
the howl about two thirds full of water and set it in a 
warm, sunny place. It does not need to he set in the dark, 
as is the case with other bulbs. These may also be grown 
in soil in the same way as other varieties of narcissus. 
When blooming is over, the bulbs may be throw_n..away, as 
they cannot be used again. 



106 NATURE STUDY 

be kept in the sane way as grains? What are the condi- 
tions that are best suited for keeping the latter products? 
Name some kinds of crops that cannot be kept in any of 
the ways already discussed. Why can they not be kept 
in these ways ? 
These discussions will develop the idea of the neces- 
sity of keeping apples, potatoes, and turnips, in cellars, 
root-houses, and pits, where they cannot freeze, but where 
they are kept at uniformly low temperatures which are as 
close as possible to their freezing points. The air must not 
be too dry, as dryness causes them to shrivel up. In dry 
cellars they should be covered with fine soil. Very delicate 
fruits, such as cherries, grapes, peaches, plums, straw- 
berries, etc., can only be kept for a length of time by pre- 
serving or canning them. 
Correlate with lessons in Household Management on 
preser ing and canning. 

FALL C ULTIVATIOiN" 

When the garden has been finally cleaned out, the plot 
should be spaded up and left without raking. Clay soil 
especially is much improved in physical qualities by thus 
being exposed to the air and frost. All garden tools should 
receive a special cleaning up before storing for winter. 

GARDEN STUDIES 
The observational studies suggested under this head 
for Form I will be followed also in Form II. The pupils 
of Form II will be expected to make more critical obsorva- 
tions in connection not only with the plants growing in 
their own individual plots, but also with those plants 



GARDEN RECORDS 107 

which other pupils have been growing. They should give 
some attention also to the plants in the perennial flower 
border. 
GARDEN RECORDS. 
In this Form the pupils should begin to make garden 
records on such points as the following: 
1. Description of the plant--size, habit of growth, kind 
of leaves and their arrangement, date of flowering, form, 
size and colouring of the flowers, points of merit or the 
reverse, description of the seed and how scattered, how 
disposed of, and the value. 
2. The work done in the garden from day to day, with 
dates. 
3. The effect of rain, drought, or other weather condi- 
tions on the growth of the plants. 
4. What insects were seen visiting the flowers and what 
they were doing--whether beneficial or harmful. 
5. What birds or other animals were found frequent- 
ing the garden. (See Animal Studies, pp. 30, 96, 217.) 
6. What plants suffered from earliest frosts ; what from 
subsequent frosts; what ones proved to be most hardy, etc. 
7. What plants the pupils like most in the garden, and 
what ones seem to suit the soil and weather conditions best. 
The pupils in this Form, by direct observation, should 
come to appreciate the development of the fruit and seed 
from the flower. Their work in seed selection, based upon 
the excellence of the flower, helps to ensure this line of 
observation. 
CORRELAT1ON8 
Art: Drawing of leaves, flowers, and vegetables, in 
colour when possible. 



108 NATURE STUDY 

Arithmetic: Calculations as to dimensions, number of 
plants, number of flowers on a plant and seeds in a flower, 
value of products of flowers and vegetables. Cost of seeds, 
fertilizer, and labour, gross and net proceeds. Statement 
showing the above. 
Composition: General connected account or story of 
the work done and the things learned during the season. 
as taken from the garden diary and from memory. 
Exercises in writing and spelling, as suitable seat 
work. 
Geography: Weather observations, as related to the 
garden work and to plant growth. Coml)arison of the soil 
of the garden with other samples from the district, as to 
eompositiol and origin. ])irection, as related to the path 
or walks in the garden. 
Map drawing: Plans of plots and of whole garden 
and grounds, represented on sand-table, paper, or black- 
board. Mp drawing on a horizontal surface is best for 
the first year or two. 
The products of the garden, as compared with home 
products, as food supplies for man and beast. 
]Ianual Training: Makin. of seed envelopes and boxes, 
modelling in clay of fruits and vegetables. 

CLIMBING PLANTS 

Observe particularly the sweet-pea and morning-glory. 
Consider the following points: 
1. Advantages gained by climbing, such as securing of 
more light, production of maly leaves and flowers, and 
not so much stem. 
. Ietbod of climbing--sweet-pea by tendrils that 
wind around the support: morning-glory b' twining its 



TREES 109 

rough stem closely around its support. Do all morning- 
glory vines twine in the same direction? Find other vines 
that climb. Examine their modes of climbing. 
3. Time of flowering and notes on how to plant. 
Make drawings of the leaves and blossoms. 

TREES 

(See type lesson on trees under Form I.) 

In this Form it is better to follow closely the develop- 
ment of one or two selected trees in school or on the h(,me 
grounds than to attempt to observe many different species. 
Allow the pupils to choose their own trees for study and, if 
possible, have them select one at ]mme and another near 
the school or on the way to school. The following points 
might receive attention: The name of the species, whence 
obtained and by whom planted if known; its approximate 
height, size, and age; its locatiou, and the nature of the 
soil; its general shape, and whether or not influenced at 
present or at some time in the past by proximity to other 
trees; description and arrangement of its branches, leaves, 
and buds, its bark, flowers, and fruit; time of ]eating out 
and blossoming; colouring and falling of leaves and ripen- 
ing of seeds; the amount of growth for the year compared 
with that of previous years as shown by the younger 
branches; qualities of beauty and usefulness of the tree. 
Drawing exercises. 
At least two visits should be made fo the woods during 
the autumn months, one when the leaves of the trees begin 
to colour and another when the leaves have fallen. Con- 
sider the preparation made for winter in the woods and 
fields, the use of dead leaves in the woods as a protection 
to forest vegetation and as soil-making material. Bring 



A FLOWER: NASTURTIUM 111 

I[ 
Each member of the class brings a flower to the school- 
room. The varieties of colours of tile flowers are dis- 
cussed. The cave-like form of each flower is noted. The 
velvety feeling of the corolla and the delicate perfume are 
likewise sensed by the pupils. 
The pupils nip off the point of the cave and taste the 
nectar (honey), and thus learn why tile insects visit tile 
flowers. They next trace tile course of the coloured lines 
on the corolla and find that they all point into the 
cave. 
Continuing their explorations of tile mouth of the cave, 
the pupils will discover the little boxes containing the 
yellow powder that tile flower dusts upon the insects. The 
names pollen and pollen boxes are given. 
The fringe on the edges of tile leaves of the corolla for 
the purpose of preventing the insects stealing into the cae 
without receiving their baptism of pollen, is discovered. 
The teacher should, at this point, give a brief explana- 
tion of the valuable work done by the insects in carrying 
pollen to cause seeds to grow in the next flower that the 
insect visits. The position of the tiny brush (stigTna, 
but do not give this name) held up by the seed case for 
rubbing the pollen off the insect, should also be observed. 
Summary.--Name and point out the parts of the 
flower (calyx, corolla, pollen boxes, seed cases). 
What useful work do insects do for the flower ? 
What reward do they receive for their work? 
What advertisements do the flowers put out for attract- 
ing themselves? (Bright colours, sweet perfumes, and 
honey) 



SOIL STUDIES 11,2 

Clay. Xote colour and odour of fresh sample. Dry 
and pulverize and note extreme fineness of the particles 
by rubbing between the fingers (an ounce of clay contains 
about four and one half million particles). Clay is made 
from crushed rocks, chiefly feldspars. Mix clay with a little 
water and note sticky character. Compare with sand in 
this respect. Which makes the best road in wet weather. 
avel, sand, or clay? Note how hard the clay bakes after 
being moistened. Uses of clay--pottery, bricks, tile. 
Pupils should visit a brick- or tile-yard and watcl the 
process of manufacture. In many parts of the world there 
are beds of clay of extreme fineness and whiteness, from 
which beautiful china is made. 
Htmus is decayed vegetable matter. Pupils shoul,1 
gather soil from the forest, bog. or marsh. Note dark 
colour. Examine carefully and see what you can find in 
it that is not in sand or clay. 
Most of our farm land cousists of these four s)ils 
mixed in various proportions, and it gets its name from 
the one that preponderates. Thus we have our sandy, 
gravelly, or clay loarns. 17Iumus is likely to be present in 
all fields, because vegetable matter grows, to some extent. 
ererywhere; but freshly broken land. reclaimed swamps. 
and prairie lands are likely to be especially well supplied. 
The great value of humus in the soil will appear in later 
studies. 

ANIMAL STUDIES 

BIRD MIGRATION 
(Consult Bird Li[e by Frank M. Chapman, and Bird ,tttdies 
by G. A. Cornish.} 
In the autumn, direct attention to the flight of wild 
ducks and geese and to the gathering into flocks t,f r,,bins. 



COMMON WILD ANIMALS I15 

In some cases, only one pupil will be studying a par- 
ticular kind of animal, while in other cases several pupiis 
may be studying the same kind of animal. The latter 
method has the advantage of giving opportunity for com- 
parison of results. Differences should serve as stimuli to 
more careful observation, in order to verify or disprove 
previous conclusions. 
The observations and inferences, together with draw- 
ings illustrating the animals, their homes, etc., are re- 
corded in the Nature Study note-books. These are dis- 
cussed in the class, verified or corrected, and supplemented 
by descriptions of lives and habits of the animals from 
nature writers or naturalists, such as Charles G. D. 
Roberts, Ernest Thompson-Seton, etc. 
When pupils become interested in this form of study, 
they become nature students in the true meaning of the 
term. The pupil is brought into contact with the animal 
in its natural environment and, under these conditions, 
the natural habits, interests, and activities of the wild 
creatures are more likely to appeal to the sympathy of 
child nature than under any other method of study. The 
method has also the advantage of being one of original 
discovery, and consequently it trains in self-reliance and 
independence of thought. 
Finally, since close and careful observation is neces- 
sary, the child learns that it is unwise to alarm the animal, 
and thus a better relationship between child life and 
animal life is fostered. 
It may be objected that this method is slow and that 
little is accomplished. This may be true from the view- 
point of matter learned, but from the view-point of child 
training more can be accomplished from the study of a 
single living animal than from the study of a score ot 
pictures or stuffed skins. 



116 NATURE STUDY 

A second method that is recommended is the study of 
tame animals. By conversations with the boys of the 
school the teacher will find what tame squirrels, ground- 
hogs, raccoons, foxes, and other animals are available for 
class-room work. The possessors of these animals are 
usually quite willing to bring them to school for the class 
to study. 
The movements, habits, food, and other topics, may 
be studied by direct observations guided by the teacher's 
questions or problems. 
A third method and, unfortunately, the one which is in 
most general use, is the study of animals by means of 
stuffed specimens and pictures, supplemented by descrip- 
tions and stories by the teacher. These lessons may be 
callcd information lessons, but they are not worthy of the 
name Nature Study. Indeed, if conditions are such that 
it is the only method available for animal study, it is ad- 
vised that the time be spent on other branches of the sub- 
ject; but if living animals are made the basis of study, 
stuffed specimens may be found useful for identification 
and for confirming observations on minute structural 
features, colour, etc. 

THE WOOD-CHUCK 

The problems outlined below are intended to illustrate 
the plan of study suggested in the first general method. 
They are assigned to a boy who has discovered a ground- 
hog burrow, in order to direct him in his observations on 
the animal. 
What is the kind of soil dug out in making the burrow ? 
"why is this soil suitable for the burrow? What size of 
stones are dug out in burrowing? Are there more en- 
trances than one? 



THE CHIPMUNK 117 

Bv slowly approaching the animal, find out how close 
it w, ll permit you to come. At what times of day does 
the ground-hog come out ? Give reasons for its coming out 
at these times rather than at mid-day. Upon what does 
the animal feed? Describe the colour of the animal and 
find out any advantages in this colour. Observe the fol- 
lowing actions: running, hiding, keeping sentry, and 
scouting. 
Do more wood:chucks than one live in one burrow? 
When do the young wood-chucks first come out of the 
burrow? Describe their size, colour, and habits. Are 
wood-chucks ever seen during the winter? Do they 
use the same burrow year after year ? Describe the sounds 
made by the animal. What injury does the animal cause 
to the fields ? 
Describe the fur, teeth, and claws, and show their rela- 
tion to the animal's habits of life. 
Dig out a burrow and draw a plan of it. Make pictures 
showing the various attitudes of the animal. 

THE CHIPMUNK 

FIELD EXERCISES 
Describe the size, colour, shape, length of tail, and 
movements of the chipmunk. Compare with the red 
squirrel. 
Have all chipmunks the same number of stripes ? 
Discover its home; method of carrying grain, nuts, or 
other foods; whether it is found most commonly on the 
pound, in trees, or among logs and stones. Try to tame 
it by placing food where it can reach it and, finally, 
to have it feed from your hand. 



118 NATURE STUDY 

Find out why there Js no loose soil around the en- 
trance to its burrow, whether more families than one iive 
in one burrow, whether the chipmunk comes out during 
winter, or how early in the spring. Learn to distinguish 
the sounds of the animal, as expressing alarm, surprise, 
anger, playfuhless. 

To the teacher.--('hipnmnks carry grain, etc., in their 
cheeks. Frequently these are so full that they must be 
emptied to permit them to enter their burrows. It is not 
unc-lnllmn for several to spend the winter in the same 
burrow, having a common storehouse connected by pas- 
sages to the main burrow. These little animals are easily 
tamed and soon learn to take food from the hand. They 
are not hibernating animals, for they store food for 
winter, and though they are not asleep all winter, yet they 
rarely (',me out of their hurrows hile there is snow on 
the ground. 

EASTERN SWALLOW-TAIL BUTTERFLY 

No butterfly is more suitable for study by the Junior 
Forms than the Eastern Swallow-tail. It. is one of the 
m,st beautiful and attractive of our butterflies and lays 
its cgs so accommodatingly on every carrot or parsnip 
bed that it gives ample opportunity for observation. 
If possible, have the pupils observe the insect in the 
act of placing the eggs, one here and one there, on the 
under surface of the leaves of the plants, noting the busy 
movements; discuss the adx'antaze of scatterin the eggs, 
and also that of placing them on the under surface of the 
]eaves. 
If the egg placing cannot be ohserved, there will be 
little difficulty in finding the large yellow and green larva 



EASTERN SWALLOW-TAIl, BUTTERFLY 119 

with a head shaped like that of a miniature sea-horse. If 
the larva itself is not easily found, the leaves stripped 
bare of green blade and the droppings on the ground will 
reveal its presence. 
Why was it difficult to see such a large, and now that 
it is seen, conspicuous object? Lead tile pupils to notice 
that the yello" and green bands harmonize in colour with 
the green leaves and alternate streaks of golden sunlight. 
Does the larva feed by biting or by sucking? How 
many legs has tile larva? ('over tile plant and larva with 
a paper bag, or inverted bottle, or a lamp chimney with a 
gauze top until the larva is full grown; or place the larva 
in a vivarium, feed it on carrot leave.% and observe its 
growth. 
When full grown, the larva builds for itself a snail- 
shaped, fairly firm case, fastened by a slender girdle of 
silk to a piece of wood or other support. Keep this over 
winter, and in March, or early April, the black-and-blue- 
and-gold insect emerges. 
Observe the movements of the wings in flight, the Iong 
tube with which it sucks honey from flowers, the three 
pairs of legs, the position of the wings when at rest; com- 
pare the structure with that of the larva. Make drawings 
of the butterfly and paint its colours. 



CItAPTER VII 

FORM lI 

WINTER 

CARE OF PLANTS IN THE HOME 

THE CARE of flowering bulbs, which was begun in Form 
I, will be continued in Form I|. The growing of new 
plants from cuttings will now be taken up. In those 
schools which are kept continuously heated, potted plants 
may be kept throughout the year. The pupils will come 
to appreciate the plants' needs and learn how to meet 
them in the supply of good soil, water, and sunlight. The 
following points should be observed: 
1. (ioo(1 pott;ng soil can be made by building up alter- 
nating layers of sods and stable lnanure and allowing this 
compost to stand until thoroughly rotted. A little sharp 
sand mixed with this forms an excellent soil for most house 
plant.. 
o,. Thorough watering twice a week is better than add- 
ing a little water every day. 
3. The leaves should be showered with water once a 
week to free them from dust. 
4. An ounce of whale-oil soap dissoh'ed in a quart of 
water may be used to destroy plant-lice. Common soap- 
suds may also he used for this purpose, but care should be 
taken to rinse the plants in clean water after using a soap 
wash. 
120 



TREES 121 

5. Most planL need some direct sunlight every day if 
possible, although most of the ferns grow without it. 
6. Plants usually need re-potting once a year. Many 
kinds may be set out-of-doors in flower beds in May and 
left until September, when they may be taken up and 
placed in pots, or cuttings may be made from them for 
potting. 
7. A flower exhibition at the school once or twice a 
year, or at a local exhibition, adds to the interest. 
8. The pupils should report to the teacher, from tim.. 
to time, the progress of their plants and make many draw- 
ings showing their development. 

TREES 
In November or December make a study f Canadian 
evergreens, choosing spruce, balsam, and cedar if avail- 
able. The pupils should learn t distinguish the different 
species by an examination of the leaves, buds, arrange- 
merit of branches, bark, seeds, and cones. The age of 
young trees can be determined by noting the successive 
whorls of branches. In this way also the age of the leaves 
may be determined. On some trees the leaves persist for 
seven or eight years. :Evergreens are frequently used as 
Christmas trees and their brandies for house decorations. 
On which species do the leaves persist longest? How do 
they compare with the pines? The leaves are always as 
old as the wood upon which they grow. 
Have the pupils notice how the small leaves and hori- 
zontal branches resist the clinging of snow in winter. 
Each branch bends down enough to cause the snow to 
slide off on to the one next below, and so on, until it 
reaches the ground. The conical shape of the tree also 
facilitates this action of dislodging the snow. They will 



12g NATURE STUDY 

establisl,,ment of sympathy with animal life, the humaniz- 
ing effect upon child nature of having a kitty for a play- 
fellow, will offset many times over the amount of depre- 
dation of which she may be guilty. 

t'OMPARISOX OF TtlE HORSE AND COW 
Assign problems for the pupiis to solve by observations 
made upon the animals in the field or farmyard. 

1. What features of build give to the horse greater 
speed than the r, ow? 
"-. ('ompare the movements of the heads of the horse 
and cow while .ropping rass. Account for the difference. 
2,. Ilow has nature fitted the cow and the horse respec- 
tively, f,r defence? 
4. Which end t,f the body does the horse raise first 
when it is getting up? Which end of its body does the 
cow raise first? Account for the difference. 

To the teacher.--The horse is the swifter and more 
graceful runner because the body is less bulky and the legs 
are longer and straighter. In cropping grass the cow 
pushes its nose forward and breaks the o'rass off, a pro- 
cess which is made necessary because the cow has no upper 
front teeth. The strong, sharp horns, short, powerful 
neck, and beavv shoulders are an efficient equipment for 
the cow's method of defence, while the ]on. strong legs 
and powerful hindquarters of the horse enable it to deal 
terrific blows with its hard hoofs. The horse rises upon 
its forelegs before raising the rear of its body, while 
.ow raise. its hindquarters first. 



WINTER BIRDS 131 

CLASS-RO0I LESSON 
The method is conversational and based upon tile 
observations made by tile pupils during the field exercises. 
The discussion would involve the winter habits of some 
of the more common birds, as, for example, the ruffed 
grouse (commonly though incorrectly called tile part- 
ridge). This bird takes shelter from the winter storms 
in the centre of a dense evergreen or burrows deep into a 
snow bank. The close covering of feathers up,,n its feet 
serves not only to keep the feet warm, but also as snow- 
shoes. Ill the evenings these birds may frequently be seen 
in the tops of such trees as maple, birch, cherry, and 
poplar, the buds of which form the greater part of their 
winter food. 
The snow bird, or snow bunting, is another bird com- 
monly seen in winter. Flocks of these hardy little winter 
visitors frequent the roads and fields during winter. Its 
summer home is in the far north. 
Another visitor from the sub-arctic regions is tile pine 
grosbeak, which is often mistaken for the robin, for these 
two birds are nearly equal in size. The carmine colour 
of the upper surface of the male grsbeak distinguishes it 
from the grays and blacks of the upper part of the robin. 
The grosbeak frequents the rowan trees. 
The bird sounds which attract attention during the 
winter are the cheerful notes of the chickadee, the bold 
clarion call of the blue jay, and the sharp tap, tap, tap, 
of the downy woodpecker. 
The downy woodpecker and the chickadee have snug 
winter homes within hollow trees, but, when the weather 
is favourable, they go about searching industriously for the 
eggs and larvae of insects that infest forest and orchard 
trees. 



CHAPTER VIII 

FORM II 

SPRING 

GARDEN WORK 

THE PUPILS have now arrived at au age when they are 
able to do most of the work of preparing and planting 
their own plot.. The seeds have been sclected and place 
in readiness for planting long before the wound is ready. 
The plans for the garden and the varieties to be sown in 
the different plots have likewise been arranged. Fertil- 
izers, lines, tools, and labels are made ready for use. With 
such thorough preparation the making and planting of the 
garden becomes a pleasure and a delight to both teacher 
and pupils. The garden diary shou|d begin as soon as the 
snow disappears from the grden and be continued until 
all the work is completed in the autumn, and the garden 
again blanketed in snow. 

The main points to be safeg'uarded are: 
1. Thorough cultivation and fertilization. 
2. The best available seed carefully planted. Guard 
against thick sowing and deep covering. 
3. Frequent cultivation and careful thinning while the 
plants are quite small. 
4. Vigilance in detecting the appearance of cutworms 
or other injurious insect. and promptness in combating 
them. 



STUDIES OF GROWING PLANTS 137 

4. Plant a few seeds, similar to those used in No. 1 
in a box containing soil that is moist but not wet, and 
set the box in the school window. 
5. Plant seeds as in No. 4, except that the b.x is kept 
in a dark eupl)oard. 
Compare the results of the above with reference to" 
1. The number of seeds that germinate. 
2. The growth and condition of the plants. 
Form conclusious with referen(.e to" 
1. The conditions that are required for seed germinatiofi. 
?. The lenefits of w,ll-draim.d s,il. 
Pupils make drawings shwing tile bxes and p]: nts. 

PLANTS ]:OR INDIVIDUAL PLOTS 
The pupils of this Form should not attempt to grow 
more than two varieties of flwers and two of vegetables. 
Of flowers, mixed asters and Shirley poppy are to bo 
ree.mmcnded, tile I"'PPY I,ein fill early bh,,ming floer 
and tile aster late hloomin. ('arrots and radishes are 
desirable vegetable., as tile carrot matures late and the 
radish early. Two or tlree cr.ps of radishes may be 
grown on the same ground in one seas,,n. Besides these. 
a few others should be chosen for special study, sucl as 
the potato, onion, corn. and sunflower. 

STUDIES BASED ON 
OBSERVATIONS OF GROWING PLANTS 
Attention should Ire given t. tile growing 1,aldts of 
plant., tle size and rate of develpmeuf, the method of 
multiplying and propagation, and the part ued for food. 



138 NATIrRI] STUDY 

The potato is a tuber which is nothing more than the 
swollen end of an underground stem; the onion a bulb 
composed of the bases of thickened leaves; the corn an 
example of a jointed stem or grass having two kinds of 
flowers, the tassels being the staminate flowers and the 
.ob with its silk the pistillate ones; the sunflower an 
example of a v.mpound flower made up of many little 
flowers eaeb of which produces a single seed. 
Observations should also be made upon the progress 
in germination of the nuts and other tree seeds collected 
n the fall. When the seeds fall fr-m the elms and soft 
maples in the spring, some of them should be collected 
and planted in the forestry plot, or nursery. 

PLANTING AND (?ARE OF SWEET-PEAS 
1. Sow as early as possible in spring. 
?. Sow on well-drained land and never in the shade or 
near grass. (rass roots rob the sweet-pea roots of water. 
:. Use a small amount of fertilizer--well-rotted 
manure spaded deeply into the soil. This is best done in 
the autumn. 
4. Make the trench in the fall about five or six inches 
deep. 
7,. Plant in a trench in April from half an inch to an 
inch apart. 
6. ('over from three inches to four inches deep. 
. Water thoroughly once or twice a week, and have 
the soil lower along the row than farther out, so as to 
bold the water. 
8. Put a mulch of lawn clippings along the row on 
each side to prevent drying out. 



WILD FLOWERS 139 

WILD FLOWERS 
Arrange an excursion to the woods when the spring 
flowers are in bloom. Keep a flower calendar, showing: 
1. The date when a plant was first found in bloom 
2. The name of the plant 
3. Place where found 
4. Name of the pupil who found it. 

When in the woods discuss the following points: 
1. Why these wild flowers come into bloom so early in 
spring. They bare a large supply of food stored up from 
the previous summer. 
2. Dig down with a trowel or heay knife and find this 
storehouse of food. It may be in the form of bulb, corm, 
or rhizome. 
3. The blooming of the spring flowers in the wood 
before the leaves of the trees reach their full development, 
thus taking advantage of the sunlight. 
4. ]Iark a few clumps or individual plants and visit 
them again after a month. Look for the growing fruit 
with its seeds. 
5. The leaves of the hepatica seen at the time when 
the blossoms appear are leaves which grew the previous 
season. Dig up a plant and notice the new leaes starting. 
6. The kind of soil each seems to grow best in and the 
amount of light it receives. 
7. Have the pupils examine the flower. and leave them 
owing. They should gather a few for the school-room. 



BIRD STUDY 143 

of poison to kill the tiny worms which cause apples to be 
wormy, it is the green cup that grow.,; and forms the flesh 
of the apple. 
Orchard trees suitable for lessons for Form II are 
apple, plum, pear, peach, and cherry. 

BIRD STUDY 
A valuable exercise in bird study, suitable for the 
pupils ,f F-rm II, is the study .f a pair of birds and the, 
history of their home through the entire season. 
A record, with dates, should be kept, and the followin.u 
topics are suggested for observa!ion : 
Where the nest is located, protection of the nest. part 
of building done by each bird ; e,,s number, c,.Im, r, size. 
time required for hatching; young birds, number, des.rip- 
tio.n, how fed and upon what f,ods, time required before 
ready to leave the nest; history for a time after leaving 
the nest. 
Birds suitable for study by the pupils of Form II are 
the crow, flicker, downy woodpecker, blue-bird, chipping- 
sparrox , phoebe, wren. 
Correlate with art, by requiring drawings and models 
of the nest and its surroundings, and with language, by 
having pupils write the history of the nest and family. 

THE TOAD 

FIELD EXERCISES 

Direct the pupils to watch for toads under the street 
lamps and on the lawns in the evenings, and to observe 
what they are doing. 
Find out, by turning over boards, logs of wood, stones, 
and old stump., where t)ads spend the daytime. 



146 NATURE STUDY 

a,,mng grasses and other .hjeets in the ponds. (Frogs' 
oggs are i, masses of jelly, not in strings.) Place some 
of the eggs in a jar of water and set the jar in the window 
of the school-room. A great mass of eggs is too much to 
put in a jar, a few dozen eggs in a pint of water will be 
more likely to develop. The water in the jar should be 
changed twice a week. 
Observations.--The light and dark areas of the 
eggs, the dark area gradually increasing in size; the in- 
crease in the length of the egg; the gradual change of the 
dark area into the general shape of a tadpole with head 
and tail, the first appearance of the gills, the separation 
front the jelly, the movement by means -f the tail, the 
disappearance of the gills, the growth of the hind legs and. 
later, of the forelegs, and the disappearance of the tail. 
Questions and Observations.What is the use of 
the dark colour of tl,e area fr,m which the tadpole is 
f,rmed ? 
Explain the uses of the strings of jelly. 
Describe haw the tadpole swims. 
Upon what does tl,e young tadpole feed ? 
What is the advantage of external gills at this stage in 
the tadpole's life ? 
Later Observations.The disappearance of the gills, 
the hudding out of the hind legs and, later, the forelegs. 
While the legs are growing out. the tail gradually becomes 
smaller, at the same time the shape changes to that of the 
adult toad with a broad body and large mouth and evs. 
Questions.--What movements has the toad which the 
tadpole did not have ? 
What make.* these movements possible? 



148 NATURE STUDY 

tutdoor studies may be assigned, 
}bserve the loose soil at the entrance to the burrows. 
Insert a straw in the burrow and, following it, dig down- 
ward with a garden trowel and learn the nature of the 
earthworm's home. -- 
Are earthw.rms ever found out ,,f their burrows during 
the day? If so, on what kind of days? Why do earth- 
worms burrow deep in dry weather? 
Earthworms can breathe only when the surfaces of 
tlmir bodies are in nmist eonflilions. 
Go out at ni.bt with a lantern to where earthworms 
are known to hae Imrrow., observe the worms stretched 
out with the rear end. of their bodies attar'bed to the 
hurrows, and note how quiek]y they draw back when they 
are touched. D. hev draxr baek if the o'round is jarred 
near them? Do t|wv draw back when the light falls upon 
lhem ? 
.tale the facts which arc taught bv the ob.ervations 
which were made on the above tolfies. 

Put two or three earthworms into a jar of rich, damp 
s,AI, on top of hieh there is a layer of sand a quarter of 
an inch thick. Put bits of eabba.,_,e, ,,ni,m. yras.% and other 
plants ,,n the urfaee and cover the jar with a glass slip 
or cardboard. 
After a few days, examiue the jar, noting the number of 
hurrows, the foods .e]eeted, the en.tings, the food dragged 
into the burrows. Pour water into the jar and ohserve the 
a,.tions of the warm.. ('an an earthworm live in water? 
Place an earthworm on a moist plate or board and 
dire,'l the pupfl. to study it, a. follows: 



AQUARIUM SPECIMENS: MOSQUITO 151 

are they most pkentiful? Why are they most plentiful 
these places? Are mosquitoes ever seen during fall or 
winter? lIow do you account for their rapid increase i,J 
number early iu summer? 
How do mosquitoes find their victims? Obse,:ve the 
humming noise and try to discover how it is made. 
Watch a mosquito as it draws blood from your hand. 
Does the point of the beak pierce the skin ? 
Capture a number of mosquitoes and place them in a 
jar containing some water and a few straws or sticks 
standing upright out of the water. Cover the mouth of the 
jar with a glass plate or fine gauze. Watch for the rafts 
of mosquitoes' eggs on the surface of the water. 
The eggs may also be found on the surface of ponds 
or open rain barrels, and may be transferred to water in a 
jar in the laboratory. 

.'TUDY OF THE ADULT l:OllM 
Note the shape, colour, sucking tube, wings, and legs. 
Compare with the house-fly. 
Distinguish the male insect from the female" the 
former has feathery feelers, and has mouth parts tin- 
suited for biting. 
How many kinds of mosquitoes have you seen? Direct 
attention to the kind which causes the spread of malaria. 
It is recognized by its habit of standing with its body 
pointing at right angles to the surface on which its feet 
are placed or, in other words, it appears to stand on its 
head. 
THE DEVELOPIIENT 
Describe the egg raft. 
Observe the wigglers (hatched in about a day); the 



AQUARIUM SPECIMENS: CADDICE-FLY 153 

These larva are easily found during the month of 
May in little streams of water everywhere throughout the 
Province. Look for what at first sight appears to be a bit 
of twig or a cylinder of stone about an inch 1,ng moving 
along the bottom as though carried by currents. Closer 
observation will result in the discovery that this is a little 
case composed of grains, of bits of stick, or of sand and 
tiny shells, and the head of the occupant may be seen pro- 
jeering from one end. 
Collect some of these larvae in a jar of water and 
transfer them to the aquarium. Direct the pupils to look 
for others in the streams, so that they may observe their 
appearances and movements in their natural environment. 
If kept in jars, the water must be changed every day, and 
the top should be covered to prevent the escape of the 
adults. 

Observe.--The shape of the various kinds of cases; 
the materials, and how fastened together (chiefly by silk} ; 
the part of the larva that protrudes from the ease: the 
movement, and how caused; the fitness of the case as a 
protection. Note hardness, colour, and shape as pro- 
tective features. 
The pupils will be fortunate if they observe the sudden 
rise of the larva to the surface of the water and the almost 
instantaneous change into the four-winged fly. 

INSECTS SUITABLE F)R LESSONS IN FORM II 

Walking-stick insect, katydid, cricket, mole-cricket, 
clothes-moth, giant water-bug, potato beetle, click-beetle, 
luna moth, and swallow-tail butterfly. 



TREATMENT OF FUNGI 155 

and die before the tubers have matured. This disease nlav 
be prevented in large measure by the use of a fungicide 
known as Bordeaux mixture. This may be prepared as 
follows : 
Take one pound of copper sulphate (blue vitriol}; 
make it fine by pounding it in a bag or cloth and then 
dissolve it in water, using a wooden pail. It dissolves 
rapidly if put in a little cheese-cloth sack, which is sus- 
pended near the top of the pail by putting a stick across 
the pail and tying the sack of copper sulphate to it. 
Dilute this solution to five gallons. Take also a pound of 
unslaked or quick-lime and add a cupful of water to it. 
When it begins to swell up and get hot, add more water 
slowly, and, when the action cease., dilute to five gallons. 
Mix these two solutions together in a tub or barrel, and 
churn them up, or stir them together vigorously. They 
give a deep robin's-egg-blue mixture, which is slightly 
alkaline and should be used at once. The solutions can be 
kept separate as stock solutions throughout the summer 
and then diluted and mixed whenever needed. ('are should 
be observed in not mixing the solutions before each has 
been diluted to the strenh, one pound to five gallons. A 
piece of blue litmus paper will be convenient to prove that 
the mixture is alkaline. If alkaline, as it should be, the 
paper remains blue when dipped in it. If the mixture 
turns the litmus paper red, it must bare more lime-water 
added to make it alkaline. The potato tops should be 
thoroughly sprayed with this mixture when about ten inches 
high and then once every two weeks, until they have been 
treated three or four times. This is to prevent blight and 
not to kill bugs. If the potato-beetle is troubling the 
potatoes, add paris-green to the Bordeaux mixturea tea- 
spoonful to every two gallon,. T prove the value of this 



J 62 NATURE STUDY 

stem touches the ground. This gives extra nourishment. 
The leaves are not numerous and grow only in one direc- 
tion, but are very large--entirely too large to be borne 
upon an upright stem. Notice the large funnel-like 
flowers and that not all of tlem set fruit. Examine the 
flowers. Some of them have stamens for producing pollen, 
but no pistil. These never produce fruit, for pumpkins 
are simply enlarged and ripened pistils. Look for insects 
and examine them to find out whether they are carrying 
pollen. Notice younger pumpkins and even blossoms 
toward the end of the vine. Pick all the blossoms and 
small pumpkins off a vine, leaving only one of the best 
growing pumpkins. See whether this one grows larger 
than one of equal age on a vine having young pumpkins 
developing on it. Notice the arrangement of the seeds 
inside a ripe pumpkin. ('ollect some seeds, wash clean, 
and dry for spring planting. ]t is desirable to plant 
pumpkins late in May, so that they will have flowers on 
tieir vines as late as September. 
Study the flowers of the cucumber and compare them 
with those of the pumpkin. 

This plant is native to America, was greatly prized 
by the aborigines, and even worshipped ])y some of them. 
Note the upright character of the plant and how the stalk 
is divided into sections by the joints, ,r nodes. Count the 
joints and also the leaves, and note the relationship of 
leaves and joints in the stalk, and how the leaves come off 
in different directions so as not to shade each other. Note 
the strong, string" threads in the leaf, which give strength 
to the leaf as well as circulation of sap. They are strong 
and elastic, allowing of movement. The same strengthen- 



GARDEN STUDIES: CORN 163 

ing fibres are seen ill the stalk when it is broken across. 
In the stalk these fibres are arranged in a tubular form, 
as this gives greatest strength, the centre being ft and 
weak. The stalks arc largest near tile base, where the 
greatest stiffness is required. The nodes are also closer 
together here for strength. The stem is made much 
stronger by the bases of tile leaves being wrapped so firmly 
around for a distance above the point of attachment at 
the node. Notice the close-fitting sheath or rain-guard, 
where the blade of the leaf leaves the stalk. This prevents 
rain soaking down inside the leaf sheath, but lets it run 
down the outside to the root where it is needed. As the 
plant gets older and taller, new roots come out from the 
node next above the root and sometimes from the second 
node above. These prop-roots are needed for support as 
the stalk lengthens, and they also reinforce the feeding 
capacity. 
Note the appearance of little cobs in the axils of the 
leaves. As soon as the silk appears, take a cob off and 
open i careful])'. Tile little cob, which corresponds to the 
pistil in other plants, is covered with small and unde- 
veloped kernels, and to each kernel one of the strands of 
so-called silk is attached. Whilst this little cob is form- 
ing, a bunch, or tassel, of flowers is forming on the top of 
the corn plant. Open one of these flowers and find the 
stamens with pollen-grains inside. This pollen, when shed, 
falls upon the silk, and each grain sends a tiny tube down 
inside the silk to the delicate ovules on the cob, fertilizing 
them and starting them to develop. The silk then withers. 
The wind carries this pollen. 
Find out how the silk is fitted for catching the pollen. 
What is the need for the great quantity of pollen that the 
plant produces .9 



NATURE STUDY 

Strip off the husks and compare the tough, hard husks 
lhat are found on the outside with the soft paper-like 
husks found close to the cob. Show how each kind is fitted 
for its particular work. 
Pupils make experiments in the corn plot to find: 
1. Whetlmr the corn grows faster: 
11 ) When the soil is kept melhw or when tim soil 
is hard ; 
(2) When the days are warm or when they are cl; 
(3) When the nights are cool or when they a 
2. The effect of growing black corn and golden corn in 
the same or in adjoining plots. Account for the re- 
suit. 
CORRELATIONS 
Art: Clay-modelling and drawing exercises on the 
whole plant, and also upon the ear. 
Literature: Interpretation and reading of " Blessing 
the Corn-fields", from Hiawalha. 
History: The name Indian corn originated in the early 
colonial days of t]e Easlern and Cenlral Stales, when the 
pioneers obtained corn from the Indians. The Indians 
showed the settlers how to kill [he trees by girdling and 
how to plant [he corn among the slanding trunks, and 
rims have corn ready for roasting by August, and for grind- 
ing into meal or for boiling to make hominy by September. 

SEED DISPERSAL 
The lessons on seed dispersal which were begun in 
Form I should be continued in this Form. 



SEED DISPERSAL 1B-; 

I. LESSON 
Select a few weeds belonging to species which produce 
large numbers of seeds, such as wild mustard, white cockle, 
false-flax, etc. Distribute the seed pods among the pupils 
of the class and require them to estimate the number of 
seeds produced by each plant. 
By references to observations made in the garden, help 
the pupils to recall the bad results, both to parent plaltS 
and to young seedlings, of improper scattering of seeds, 
namely: 
1. The excessive crowding and shading, which causes 
the plants to become weak. 
2. Insufficient food and moisture for the large number 
of plants, which causes the plants to be small and worth- 
less. 
Discuss how the crowding of cultixated plants is pre- 
vented and, iu a general way, how nature provides for 
the scattering of seeds. 
The great work of the plant is the production and dis- 
persal of its seeds. 
Ask the pupils to be on the alert to find examples of 
plants in which provision is made for the dispersal of the 
seeds, and to bring these plants to the class for the next 
lesson. 

DETAILED STUDY OF SEED DISPERSAL 

II. CLASS-ROO:M LESSON 
lIake use of the specimens gathered by the pupils aud 
by the teacher for observing and classifying as follows: 
1. Seeds that steal rides. Examples--burdock, blue 
burr, pitch-fork weed, barley, stick-tight, hound's tongue. 



NATURE STUDY 

2. Seeds that are carried in edible fruits which have 
attractive colours, tastes, etc. Examples--apple, grape, 
cherry, rowan, hawthorn. 
3. Seeds that are carried by the wind. Examples-- 
dandelion, thistle, milkweed, maple, pine, elm. 
4. Seeds that are scattered by being shot from bursting 
pods. Examples--violet, jewel-weed (touch-me-not), 
sweet-pea, witch-hazel. 
5. Seeds that are scattered by plants which are rolled 
along by the wind. Examples--Russian thi.tle, tnb!e- 
mustard, tumble-grass. 
6. Seeds that float. Ver many seeds float, although 
not specially fitted for floating, and some, such as the 
cocoa-nut and water-lily, arc especially adapted for dis- 
pcr.al by water. 

To tie teacIer.--Require the pupils to observe the 
.pecial structure that facilitates the dispersal of the seed. 
As an illustration, ask the pupils to find the seeds of the 
burdock and to describe what the burr is really like. Thev 
find that the burr is a little basket filled with seeds. The 
basket has many |ittle hooks which catch on the hair of 
anima|s and, since these hoo]s turn inwards, they serve 
to hold the basket in such a position that all the seeds are 
not like|v to drop out at one time. The pupils should also 
observe that these ba.lets are quite firmly attached to the 
parent p|ant until Che seeds are ripe; after that the baskets 
break off the plant at the slightest pull. 

SEED COLLECTIONS 
During late summer and in the autumn the seeds of tim 
weeds that ha-e been identified by the pupils should be 
collected. 



SEED DISPERSAL 167 

Instruct the pupils to rub the ripened seed pods be- 
tween the hands until the seeds are thrashed out, at tile 
same time blowing away tile chaff. The seeds are now 
placed i small phials or in small envelopes and these are 
carefully labelled. If possible, fill each phial so that there 
may be sufficient seed 5r use by all tile nmmbers of tile 
class in the lessons on seed description and idenlificatim 
which are to be taken during the winter months, when 
Kature Study material is less plentiful than it is in the 
summer and autumn. Tile phials or envelopes nmv be 
stored ill a shallow box, or the phials may be mounted on 
a stout card. They may be attached to this card either 
by stout thread sewed through the card and passing arounI 
the phial, or by brass cleats, which may be obtained with 
the phials from dealers in Nature Study supplies. 

MAN AS A DISPERSER OF SEEDS 
Man as an agent in the dispersal of seeds should be 
made a topic for discussion. 
Obtain, through the pupils, samples of seed-grain, 
clover seed, timothy seed, turnip seed, etc. Ask the pnpils 
to examine these and count the number of weed seeds 
found in each. 
The results will reveal a very common way in which 
the seeds of noxious weeds are introduced. 
Describe the introduction from Europe to the wheat- 
fields of the Prairie Provinces of such weeds as Ru..ian 
thistle, false-flax, French-weed. The seeds of these weeds 
were carried in seed-grain, fodder for animal., and also in 
the hay and straw used by the immiants as packing for 
their houhold goods. 
Careful farmers will not allow thrasbing-nmehine., 
seed drills, fanning-mills, etc., to come from farm. 
12 



TOMATO WORM 175 

(also called lady-bugs), are small, spotted beetles, broad 
oval in form, of bright colours, red and black, or yellow 
and black, or black and white. 
They are of eat service to the farmer and gardener 
because their foods consists largely of plant-lice (aphides). 
Watch the action of ants which are found among the 
aphides. The ants may be observed stroking the aphides 
with their feelers, causing the aphides to excrete a sweet 
fluid on which the ant feeds. Aphides are sometimes 
called ant-cows. 
Direct the attention of the pupils to the difference be- 
tween the male and female aphides; the males have wings, 
but the females are wingless. 

TOMATO WORM 

TIIE ADULT 

The adult moth may be captured on spring evenings 
when the lilacs are in bloom, as it buzzes about among the 
lilac blossoms sucking their honey. It is frequently mis- 
taken for the humming-bird when thus engaged. It may 
also be observed during the summer evenings laying its 
eggs on the leaves of tomato vines. 
Observe the worms that hatch from these e,,,-s and 
note their rapid orowth. Keep the larva  in a box in the 
school-room and feed them on tomato leaves. Note their 
size and colour, the oblique stripes on the sides, the horn 
which is used for terrifying assailants, the habit of remain- 
ing rigid for hourshence the name sphinx moth. 
The larvae burrow into the ground in September to 
form the chrysalides, hence there should be soil in 
vivarium in which they are kept. 



176 NATURE STUDY 

THE CHRYSALIS 
Observations.--The shape, colour, nature of the 
covering, the long handle, the wing impressions, the seg- 
mental part, the emergence of the adult in May or early 
June. 
What organ of the insect was contained in the 
"' handle" of the chrysalis ? 
The adult is one of the handsomest of moths, because 
of its graceful, clear-cut shape and the variegated grays 
and yellows of its dress. Look on poplar, cotton-wood, 
plum, and pine trees, and on tobacco plants for relatives 
of the tomato worm, tile large 'reen larwe whose chrysalis 
and adult forms resemble those of the tomato worm. 

THE CROW 

('rows are so plentiful that there will be no difficulty 
in making observations on the living birds in the free 
state in spring or summer. (As the crow is a bird that 
is easily tamed, it may be possihle to have a tame crow in 
the class-room for more careful study of the details of 
structure.) 
Observations.--Deseribe its attitude when perched, 
movements of the wings in flight, speed of flight. Why 
does the crow perch high up in trees? What gives to the 
crow its swift flight? 
Study the various calls of the crow and note the 
alarm, threat, summons, and expression of fear. 
Find the nest and note its position, size, build, 
material., eggs, and young. How is the nest coneeale,? 
What makes it strong? 
Are crows -ften seen on the ground? Do they walk 
or hop ? 



THE CROW 177 

Observe and report on the crow's habits of feeding. It 
eats corn, potatoes, oats, beetles, crickets, gTasshoppers, 
cutworms, and occasionally birds' eggs or young birds. 
Why do king-birds chase and thrash the crow? Are 
scarecrows effective in keeping crows off the grain fields? 
Note the sentinels that are on the 'atch to warn other 
crows of danger. 
Give reasons for the belief that the crow is a wise bird. 
Give reasons for regarding the crow as a neighbour of 
doubtful character. Give reasons why crows should be 
protected. 
No'r.--Crows will not pull up corn and seed that has been 
covered ith coal-tar beforo it is planted. 

In addition to the animals already named, the musk- 
rat, raccoon, fox, flying-squirrel, robin, wren, and king- 
bird will be found conxenient for study in many localities. 
The swimming of the musk-rat, and how its shape. 
fur, feet, and tail fit it for a life in water are topics suit- 
able for observational exercises, as are also its food, its 
winter home, and the burrows leading from the water into 
the banks. In the case of the winter home. the location. 
the structure, the submerged entrance, the living-room. 
and the surrounding moat, are topics of interest. 

CORRELATIONS 

With literature: By reading animal stories, such as, 
The Kindred of the Wild and " Red Fox." by Charles G. D. 
Roberts; and Wild Animals I Ha'e Known, by Ernest 
Thompson-Seton. 
With language: By oral and written descriptions of the 
animals that have been observed. 



CHAPTER X 

FI)I{M Iii 

WINTEI,' 

CARE OF PLANTS IN THE HOME 
THE c.rr of flowering bulb. which was be,o'un in Form 
I will be continued in Form l[. The growing of new 
plants from cuttings will now be taken up. In those 
schools which are kept continuously heated, potted plants 
may be kept throughout the year. The pupils will come 
to appreciate the plant's needs and learn how to meet them 
in the suplly of good soil. water, and sunlight. The fol- 
lowing points should 1,e observed: 
1. ;,,od polting soil can lie made by building up alter- 
nating ]avers of sods and stable manure and allowing this 
--mpost to stand until thoroughly rotted. A little sharp 
sand mixed with this forms an excellent soil for most 
house plants. 
2. Thorough watering twice a week is better than add- 
ing a little water every day. 
3. The leaves should be showered with water once a 
week to cleanse them from dust. 
4. An ounce of whale-oil soap dissolved in a quart of 
water may be used to destroy plant-lice. Common soap- 
suds may also be used for this purpose, but care should be 
taken to rinse the plants in clean water after using a soap 
wash. 
.5. Most plants need some direct sunlight every day if 
possible, although most of the ferns .OOW without it. 



180 NATURE STUDY 

just below a node, or joint, and leaving only a couple of 
small leaves on the top of the slip. Insert it to about half 
its depth in the box of moist sand. These cuttings may 
be placed a few inches apart in the box, which should then 
be placed in a warm, light room for a few weeks until the 
roots develop. The cuttings should be partly shaded by 
papers from the strong sunlight, and the sand kept slightly 
moist but not wet. Bottom heat and a moist, warm 
atmosphere hasten their development. 
Another very convenient and very successful method 
of starting cuttings is to take a six-inch flower-pot, put 
two inches of fine gravel in the bottom, set a four-inch 
unglazed fl,wcr-pot in the centre, and fill up the space 
around it with sand and garden-loam, mixed. Put a 
cork in the hole in the bottom of the small flower-pot, and 
then fill it with water. Put the cuttings around in the 
space between the two pots and set in a fairly warm room 
in moderate light. 

POTTING OF ROOTED CUTTINGS 

When the cuttings are well rooted, which requires from 
three to six weeks according to the variety and growth 
,nditions furnished, they should be carefully lifted with 
a trowel and each set in a small pot or can. First put in 
the bottom a few small stones to secure drainage, and then 
a little good potting soil. Set the plant in place and fill 
in around with more soil and pack this firmly around the 
roots, leep room in the top of the pot for water. When 
the new plant has made some growth, it may be shifted 
to a larger pot. Geranims and coleus (foliage plants) 
should not be kept more than two seasons. Take cuttings 
off the old plants and then throw the latter away. 



EVERGREENS 181 

EVERGREENS 

In December make a study of Canadian evergreens, 
choosing spruce, balsam, and cedar, if available, or sub- 
stitute hemlock for any one of these. 
Compare the general features of these trees, such as 
shape, direction of branches, colour, persistence of leaves 
through the winter. 
Have the pupils notice how nature fits these trees to 
endure the snows and storms of winter by: 
1. The tapering cone which causes the snow to slide 
off the tree. 
2. The fine, needle-shaped leaves to which only very 
sticky snow will adhere. 
3. The very tough, flexible, and elastic branches, which 
bend in the wind and under the weight of snow, but spring 
back to their old positions. 
4. The resin in leaves, stems, and buds, which enables 
the trees to resist frost and rain. 
Teach the pupils to distinguish these trees by their 
differences in colour and form and also by the differences 
in their leaves and cones. 

CLASS-RO0I LESSON 
Distribute small twigs of balsam and require the pupils 
to observe and describe the ]eng-th, shape, and co]our of 
the ]eaves. 
Next distribute small twigs of spruce and require the 
pupils to compare the spruce ]eaves with those of the 
balsam in length, shape, and co]our. 
Next distribute twigs of cedar and proceed similarly. 
The cones may he dealt with in a similar manner. 
}{equire the pupils to make a census of the evergreens of 



Ct:II('KENS 185 

3. Some animals build houses and slore foods: 
Examples--beaver, squirrel, chipmunk, honcy-Iee, 
deer-mouse. 
4. ,%me animals build homes convenient to food: 
Examples--musk-rat, field-mouse. 
5. S.me animals put on warmer clothing: 
Examples--fox, mink, otter, rabbit, horse, cow, 
partridge, chickadee. The rabbit and weasel 
turn white, a colour protection. 
;. Many insect larvae form cocoons or pup,'e cases: 
Examples--emperor-moth, codling moth, tolnat, 
worm. 

('ORRELATIONS 

With literature, reading, and language. 
With geography: By a lesson on "The influence of 
climate upon animal and plant life" 

CHICKENS 
(Consult Principles and Practice o Poultry CIture by 
Robinson. Ginn & Co., $2.00.) 

CONVERSATION LESSON 
]{OW lany of you keep chickens at your homes ? 
Why do many kinds of people keep chickens? 
What breeds of chickens do you keep? 
How many other breeds do you know? 
Describe the appearance of a few of the commoner 
breeds. 
Why are there so many different breeds? 
]ame those that are good laying breeds. 
Name breeds that are not usually considered good lav- 
ing breeds. 



CHICKENS 187 

3. If the data collected by the pupils as to the number 
of eggs is thought to be nreliable, make use of the fol- 
lowing: 
The average numl)er of eggs laid each year by each hen 
in Ontario is seven dozen. Use this average numl)er, and: 
(1) Calculate the value of the eggs produced in this 
district in a year, the average price of eggs being twenty 
cents a dozen. 
(2) If the average production of eggs were increased 
to ten dozen (a number that is easily possil,le under im- 
proved management), find the value of the egrs that w,,uld 
1)e produced in a year, and find the gain that would result 
from this better management. 
4. If it costs ninety cents a year to feed a hen, find 
the net annual profit to this district from the egg produc- 
tion. 

(_'ARE ,F ('llIt'KEX.q 

The method of developing conceptions of how to take 
proper care of chickens is based partly upon the pupils' 
experiences and partly upon a knowledge of the history 
of the original wild hens. 
Information can be gathered from the pupils as to the 
date of hatching of the earliest chickens and the date at 
which the pullets begin to lay. Chickens that are hatched 
in April begin to lay in November or December and lay 
throughout the winter when eggs bring the highest price. 
The original wild hens lived in the dry. grassy, and 
shrubby jungles of India. They were free to move about 
in the open air, and at night they perched in the trees. 
which sheltered them from rain. Hence may be inferred 
what kind of quarters should be provided for chickens. 



NATURE STUDY 

CONVECTION 
Water is not a conductor, how then is it heated ? 
lrop a few pieces of solid colouring matter, (analinc 
hlue, hlueing, .r potassium permanganate) into a beaker 
of cold water. Place the beaker over a heater and observe 
the eoloured portion rise. 
Wet sawdust will make a good suhstitute for the 
e,louring matter. A sealing jar or even a ti cup will do 
instead of the heaker. The stove or a dish of hot water 
will take the place of the lamp. 

PROBLEMS 
1. lrsing a therm,meter, see whether the water at the 
b,ttom is warmcr than that at the top while the beaker 
is being heated. 
". ][eat some oil and pour it over the surface of some 
.,hl water. L,wer a thernmmeter into this. Does the 
u atcr at the bottom soon become warm ? 
3. If your kitchen is provided with a hot-water tank, 
find out what part of the tank first becomes warm after 
the fire is lighted. 
4. In hathing, where do you find the eohlest water of 
a pond or still river? See Science of Common Life, 
I'hapter VI: also Tle Otario High School Physics, page 
280. 
CONYECTION IN GASES 
A good apparatus may be made by cutting two holes 
one inch in diameter in one side of a chalk box, replace 
lhe lid with a piece of glass, place a ]amp chimney over 
each hole and a lighted candle under one of the chimneys. 
||old a piece of smoking touch-paper at each chimney in 
turn and note direction of air current. 



RADIATION OF HEAT 199 

APPLICATIONS 

1. Winds are caused by the rising of air over heated 
areas, allowing cooler currents to take its place. (Geo- 
graphy) 
2. _looms are ventilated by heating some of the air 
more than tlm rest, thus producing a current. (llygiene) 
Winds are nature's means of ventilating the earth. 

RADIATION OF HEAT 

This should be taken up as an introduction to dew, 
frost, winds, climate, etc. 
1. Make an iron ball hot (the end of a poker will 
answer). IIold the band a few inches below the iron. 
Does the heat reach the hand by convection.9 By conduc- 
tion.9 By means of suitable questions, lead the pupil to 
see that it is not by convection, for the hand is below the 
hot object while heated air rises; it is not by conduction, 
for air is one of the very po-rest conductors; moreover, 
the heat is felt instantly from the poker, but it takes an 
appreciable time for it to come hv conduction and con- 
vection. We say this heat is radiated from the iron. The 
velocity of radiated heat is about 186,o00 miles a second. 
2. The ahove experiment may be varied by bringing 
the hot iron radually tward the bulb of the air thermo- 
meter and noting the greatest distance at which it will 
affect the thermometer. 
It is by radiation that the sun's heat and light reach 
us. We get much of the heat of stoves, fire-places, and 
radiators by the same means. 
Why does the earth cool off at night? Why does de,, 
form? Why can lm dew form cm a cloudy night? Why 
is a mountain top or a desert s, eld, especially at night ? 



200 NATURE STUDY 

3. Take lwo tin cans (baking powder boxes will answer) 
and make holes in the lids large enough to admit a ther- 
mometer. Blacken one box in the flame of an oi! lamp. 
Fill both with boiling water and put in a cool place. Test 
with a thermometer from time to time. Which cools most 
rapidly ? 
4. Fill the tin cans with cold water, find the tempera- 
ture, and then place them near a hot stove. Which warms 
faster? Usually dark or rough surfaces radiate heat and 
absorb heat faster than bright or smooth ones. An ex- 
cellent way of testing this is to lay a black cloth and a 
white one side by side on the snow where the sun is shinin,z 
brightly. The snow will melt more rapidly under the 
black cloth. Painted shingles may be substituted for the 
cloths. Try different eolour.. The day chosen should not 
be extremely cold. 

PROBLEMS 
1. Why should we hae the outside of a tea-kettle, 
teapot, or hot-air shaft of a bright colour? Wbv should 
we have stoves and stove-pipes dull black? 
2. Why does a coat of snow keep the earth warm? 
3. Which is the warmest co]our to wear in winter? 
Does this account for the colour of Arctic animals? 
t. Which is the coolest colour to wear in the hot sun ? 
5. Gardeners sometimes strew the ground with coal- 
dust to help ripen their melons. Show the value of this. 
6. Suggest a method of protecting a wall from the 
he, t of a stove. 



CtIAPTER XI 

FORM III 

SPRING 

WINDOW BOXES 

M.aNY garden plants should be started in a box of eerth 
in a warm, sunny window. In some schools this can be 
done with a little care in heating on cold nights. Small 
boxes or grape baskets full of rich sandy loam with an 
inch of gravel in the bottom for drainage may be used. 
Sow tile seeds in rows or broadcast. To prevent the soil 
from drying out too quickly, cover the box with a pane of 
glass. When the plants are up, give them plenty of light 
and not too much warmth. On very mild days set them 
in a warm, sheltered place out-of-doors and bring them 
in again early in the evening. This tends to make them 
hardy. Vhen about three inches high, pick the young 
plants out and set them in other boxes a few inches apart. 
This moving causes the formation of numerous fibrous 
roots and makes stronger plants. 

WINDOW GARDENS 
Window boxes may be used for a whole season on the 
inside of the building in cold weather, and on the outside 
in warm weather. There is almost no limit to the kinds 
of plants that can be grown in them, but they are most 
suitable for flowers. 
Good boxes may be made of dressed lumber so as to 
fit on the window-.ill. Thev should be six inches deel, 
201 



SOIL STUDIES: EXPERIMENTS 203 

to time with a little liquid manure. This can be best 
obtained by taking a strong barrel or large keg and filling 
it about half full of water. Then fill an ordinary coarse 
potato sack with cow-stable manure and set the sack in 
the barrel for a few days. A tap in the bottom of the 
barrel is most convenient for drawing off the liquid manure. 
A little of this will also be found valuable for watering 
dahlias, roses, and other garden plants during the summer. 

SOIL STUDIES 

The classes of soil should be reviewed. Pupils should 
gather examples from many places. The samples may be 
kept iu bottles of uniform size and should include not 
only the four types but  arteries of each, also various kinds 
of loam. 

EXERCISES AND EXPERIMENTS 

SOIL ('ONSTITUENTS 
1. With a sharp spade, cut a piece about twelve inches 
deep from (1) the forest floor, (2) an old pasture field. 
Note character and order of the layers of soil in (1) 
leaves, hunms, loam,' sand, or clay; in (2) grass, dead 
grass, humus, loam, sand, or clay. Observe soils shown 
in railway cuttings, freshly dug wells, post holes. 
2. Note the effect produced on the soil of a field by 
(1) leaving it a few years in pasture, (2) ploughing in 
heavy crops, (3) applying barn-yard manure. In all these 
cases vegetable matter is mixed with the soil. 
3. Dry some good leaf-mould. Throw a handful on the 
surface of some water. The mineral matter sinks, while 
the vegetable portion remains suspended for some time. 
Try this experiment with gravel, sand, and clay. Note 



204 NATURE STUDY 

that the gravel sinks rapidly, the sand less rapidly, and 
that the clay takes a long time to settle. If the water be 
kept in rapid motion, the finer soils will all remain sus- 
pended till motion becomes slower. Apply this in geo- 
graphy. The bed of a stream will consist of stones if it 
be swift, of sand if less swift, and of clay if very slow. 
tIow are alluvial plains formed? 
4. Place half an ounce of dry humus on an iron plate 
or fire-shovel and heat strongly in a stove. Note that it 
begins to smoke aud a large part smoulders away to ashes; 
the mineral portion remains. Weigh the part left and 
find what fraction of the humus consisted of vegetable 
material. 
Try to find the prq.rtion f vegetable matter in each 
of the following: loams from various sources, sand. clay, 
gravel. The last three will show scarcely any change. 
This experiment will give rise to some good arithmetical 
lmblems in fractions. 

WATER IN SOILS 

5. ('ompare a handful of fresh garden soil with the 
same soil dried. Xote the glistening of the fresh soil, 
also its weight and darker colour. The fresh soil admits 
of packing though no water can be squeezed from it. In 
its best condition, the water of the soil adheres as a film 
of moisture about every partiOe. Free water is to be 
avoided since it excludes the air frown the soil. 
6. Equal weights of soils of different kinds and degrees 
of fineness are placed in funnels or in inverted bottles 
with bottoms removed. Water is then slowly added to 
each until it begins to drop from the lower end. From this 



TREE SEEDS 207 

in line and the plots made up the exact size, the appear- 
ance of the garden will be greatly improved. 
Tim pupils are now ohl enough to make their own 
choice of flowers and vegetables. Very tall growing plants, 
such as corn and sunflowers, are not desirable in individual 
plots as they shade other plants near them. Corn is best 
grown in a large plot about twenty feet square. The same 
may be said of vines, such as cucumbers, melons, squash, 
etc. If the plots are small, it is better to plant but a single 
variety, but in large plots from two to four varieties may 
be arranged to advantage. Usually rows of vegetables, 
such as carrots and beets, may be placed a foot apart, 
cabbage about twice that distance, and tomatoes a little 
farther apart than cabbage. 
Generally speaking, plants should be placed so that 
when full grown they will just touch, cover the ground 
completely, and thus prevent the growth of weeds. 
As soon as the young plants appear above the ground, 
light cultivation with rakes and claw-hand weeders should 
be started, so as to keep weeds from growing and at the 
same time to provide a loose surface or earth mulch for 
conserving the moisture and aerating the soil. Thinning 
should also be begun when the plants are quite small, but 
it should not all be done at once. As the plants increase 
in size, the best ones should be left and the poor ones taken 
out. In some cases plants thus removed may be re-set to 
fill vacant places. 

TREE SEEDS 

Tree seeds that have been stored over winter should 
now be planted in rows in a .mall plot. The rows should 
be a foot apart aud the seeds quite close together in the 
row. A cheese-cloth or slat shade should be used on this 



TRANSPLANTING 209 

Watering again twenty-four hours after transplanting is 
often necessary. If the plant has a leafy top, it is best 
to take off some of the leaves, as they tend to give off water 
more rapidly than the roots can at first take it in. 

TRANSPLANTIN'G TREE SEEDLINGS 

Nuts and other tree seeds collected the previous autumn 
should now be planted in the forestry plots in rows a foot 
apart. As the seeds may not all grow, they may be planted 
close together in the row and thinned out the followin. 
spring if necessary. They need some shelter from tile sun 
tle first summer. In large plots this is provided by means 
of a slat covering, but in a small plot cheese-cloth tacked 
on strips and fastened on corner posts is satisfactory. 
When a shower comes, this cheese-cloth screen should he 
removed so that the rain may moisten tile plot evenly. 
Seedlings may be transplanted from the woods or from 
the forestry rows before the leaves open out. 

BUDDING 
In budding, a slit like the letter T is made in the side 
of the young seedling close to the ground. The bark is 
raised a little at the point where the vertical slit meets 
the horizontal one, and a bud of desired variety with a 
shield-shaped bit of bark (and perhaps a little wood} 
attached to it is shoved in and the sides of the slit bound 
down upon it. After the bud, or scion, has started to grow. 
the stock is cut off an inch above the point where the bud 
was inserted. The bud then makes rapid owth, and i 
two years the resulting tree is large enough to set in its 
permanent place in the orchard. 



210 1NATURE STUDY 

CUTTINGS 
Pupils in this Form should try to grow such woody 
plants as roses and grapes from cuttings. Roses are fre- 
quently propagated by budding, as in the case of apples 
and peaches. They may also be grown upon their own 
roots or fron stem cuttings. Such cuttings should be from 
well-matured wood of the present year taken in the autumn 
and packed in moist sand over the winter. Make the cut- 
tings about three inches in length. The top end should be 
cut off immediately above a bud aud the bottom end just 
below a bud, as roots seem to start more readily from a 
node, or bud. Such a cutting may have three or four buds 
of which only the upper two need be left. If both of these 
grow, the poorer one may afterwards be removed. 
These rose cuttings should then be inserted in a box 
of clean, moist sand to a depth of two inches, kept in a 
warm room. and shaded with a sheet of newspaper when 
the sun is very bright. Keep the sand moist but not wet. 
and when possible have gentle bottom heat. When roots 
have nlade some growth, transplant carefully into small 
flower-pots, using fairly rich, clay loam. In a few weeks 
they will be ready to plant out in the garden. 
Grape cuttings should be taken late in the fall when 
the vines are well matured. Such a cutting includes only 
two joints, the upper one being the growing end and the 
lower the rooting end. They must be stored over winter in 
cold. moist sand. but should not be permitted to freeze. 
As soon as the ground can be prepared in the spring, set 
them out. They should be placed on a slant of about forty- 
five degrees and covered all but the top bud. 



TRANSPLANTING: CUTTINGS 211 

LEAF CUTTINGS 
Some plants with large and vigorous leaves, such as 
many of the begonias, may be propagated by means of 
leaf cuttings. Buds readily develop from cuts made in 
the large veins. Take a full-grown healthy leaf and remove 
the stem all but about half an inch. BIake a few cuts 
across the larger veins on the under side of the leaves at 
points where main veins branch. Press the leaf firmly 
down on the top of a box of moist sand with the under 
side next the sand. Keep the leaf in this position, using 
small stones or little pegs pushed through the leaf into 
the sand. Put the box in a warm room and do not let 
the sand become dry. When roots strike into the sand 
and buds develop from the points where the veins were 
wounded, take a sharp knife and cut out the new plant 
from the old leaf and transplant it into a small flower-pot 
in good soil. Sink the pot in a box of moist sand to pre- 
vent its drying out. 

ROOT CUTTINGS 

Such plants as "sprout from the roots" may be pro- 
pagated by :oot cuttings. Sections of underground stems 
may also come under this heading, as in the case of horse- 
radish cuttings. But real roots may be used for cuttings, 
as in the case of the blackberry and raspberry. The roots 
should be cut in pieces three or four inches long, planted 
in a horizontal position, and entirely covered with two or 
three inches of soil. 

LAYERING 
Bush fruits, such as currants and gooseberries, are 
frequently propagated by stem cuttings, as in the case of 



ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS 215 

DO trilliums grow from the same root-stock year after 
year ? 
As correlations, represent the trillium in colour and 
design an embroidery pattern based on it. 
Lessons similar to that on the trillium may I,e ha.ed on 
adder's tongue, Indiau turnip, Dutchman's breeches, 
violet, and clover. 

ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS 

It is not considered necessary to go outside the list of 
ordinary animals to find sulIieient illustration. of adapta- 
tions, and it is recommended that attention be given to 
these during the study of auimals prescribed f,,r the 
regular Course. This may be Sul,pleneuted by an ,ccas- 
ional review of adaptive features for the purpose of 
emphasizing the general fituess of animals for their varied 
habits and surroundings. ('are must be taken lest the 
attempt to explain structures hy adaptation be carried to 
an extreme, for it is impossible to account for all the 
variations in animal forms. 
The following list contains a few of the many examples 
of adaptations to be met with in the Course prescribed f,)r 
Forms II and III. 
The horse walks and runs on the tips of its toes; this 
gixes greater speed. 
Wild animals of the cow and deer kiud can swallow 
their food hastily so that they may retire to a safe retreat : 
there they regurgitate the food and chew it. The 
domesticated animal retains this habit, though there is no 
longer a need for it. 
The wood-hare's fur is brown in summer, hence its 
enemies cannot see it against he brown grass and moss; 



216 NATURE STUDY 

in winter its colour is white, which, against the snow, is a 
protective colour. 
The porcupine is very slow, but its colour and shape 
make it almost impossible to distinguish from a knot on 
a log. Its quills form an effective protection when it is 
discovered. 
The feet of the squirrel are adapted for climbing and 
its teeth for gnawing wood and for opening nuts. The 
tail serves as a balanc!ng pole for leaping from tree to 
tree and in winter it acts as a protection from cold. 
The earthworm's shape and movements are suited to 
its habits of burrowing through the soil. Its habits of 
wallowing the soil fit it for burrowing and for obtaining 
its food at the same time. 
Many insect larv,'e, as the tomato worm and the cab- 
bage-worm, are of the same colour as the plants on which 
they feed, and this enables them to escape detection by 
birds. 
The larva of dragon-flies and May-flies breathe in 
water by means of gills very much as fishes do, but the 
adult forms are suited for breathing in air. 
Female birds are usually dull gray or mottled, so that 
their colours blend with their surroundings while they are 
]esting, and hence they do not attract the notice of their 
enemies. 
Birds that swim have webbed feet, which act as oars 
for pushing them through the water. Their feathers are 
compact and soft for warmth, and these properties, to- 
gether with oil on their surfaces, nmke them waterproof. 
The tongue of the woodpecker is long, spear-shaped. 
and sticky; hence it is adapted for catching insects iv the 
boles pccked into the wood. 



21 NATURE STUDY 

l[ow does it move up a tree trunk? 
tIow does it move down a tree trunk? 
Find out how it can hold so firmly to the trunk. 
Does it use its sharp beak as a drill or as a pick? 
To tle teacler.--The downy is spotted black and white, 
with barred wings and a white line down the centre of the 
bac:. A bright scarlet crown is the colour distinction of 
the male. This little bird is the embodiment of energy 
and perseverance. It hops nimbly up the trunk, tapping 
here and there with its beak, and then listening for the 
movements of the disturbed wood-borers. If it wishes to 
descend, it wastes no time in turning around, but hops 
baekward down the trunk, or jumps off and flies down. 
]I 
Examine an apple tree upon which a downy has been 
at work and find out what it was doing there. 
I)o you find the birds in pairs during winter? During 
summer? Distinguish the male from the female. 
Tie a beef bone with scraps of meat adhering to it to 
a tre. What birds come to it? 
Find the nest of the downy and describe the nest and 
the 
Do the holes made by the downy injure the trees? 
Why should the downy be welcomed in our orchards? 
Describe the sounds made by the birds. 
To tle teacler.--Diseuss the pupils' answers to the 
aboe problems in the class lesson, using a picture of a 
w,odpeeker to illu.trate the features of the bird that 
adapt it for its habits. Examples: the straight, sharp beak 
suited for drilling; the two backward, projecting toes for 
perching; the spines on the tips of the tail feathers to aet 
as a prop. 



220 NATURE STUDY 

getic movements, its tail turned nearly vertically upward. 
Observe and report on other wrens, noting any differences. 

CABBAGE-BUTTERFLY 
IIave a plant f wild mustard or a cabbage growing in 
a pot. In June, have the pupils, by means of the insect 
net, catch a number of the white butterflies, the adults of 
the cabbage-worm. 
Place the butterflies in jars or bottles and observe 
lhem. Make drawings of them. 
Direct the attention of the pupils to the difference 
letween the wing.q f the male and those f the female. 
The former has only one dark spot on the front wing, 
while the f.male has two spots on this wing. 
IteIease the males and put the females in a vivarium 
with the potted plant. (A pasteboard box, with a large 
l,iece cut out and the opening covered with gauze, makes 
a good sub:titute for a vivarium in this case.) 
Observe the laying of the eggs. llow many are placed 
at one spot ? Ibnv are the cgg. protected ? The eggs may 
I,e gathered fr,m the cabbage plants in the garden. 
(bserve and record the hatching of the tiny worm, its 
feeding, growth, forming of chrysalis, dexelopment into 
adult. 
Frequently little yellow silken cocoons are found in 
vivaria where cabbage-worms are kept: these are cocoons 
of a parasite (bracanid) that infests the worm. 
Because of the ease with which the cabbage-butterfly 
may be obtained and the rapidity of its development in 
the various stages, it is very suitable as a type for the study 
of metamorphosis. 
The sulphur, or puddler {called by the latter name 
because of its habit of settling in _groups around the edges 



FISH 223 

tember or October. The best place for this is on the 
bank of a clear stream from which it is possible to observe 
the fish in their natural environment. ][ere their life 
activities, their struggles, their conquests, and silent 
tragedies are enacted before the eyes of the observer. 
Many observations may be made in this way which will 
create a life-long interest in these reticent, yet active 
creatures. Since this method of study is practicable in hut 
few eases, the study of the living fish iu the aquarium is 
the best available substitute. 
Tim teacher or the boys of the class can catch a few 
fish of three or four inches in length and carry them in a 
jar of water to the aquarium. Minnows, chub, perch, cat- 
fish, or other common forms will do. 

OBSERVATIONS 

The general shape, and the suitability of the shape for 
swimming. 
The surface of the body and the protection it affords. 
Note the scales and the slime, the latter a protection 
against the growth of fungi, etc. 
The gills--tvo openings behind the flaps at the rear of 
the head. The eolours, and their value in concealing the 
fish. The dark upper surface makes it inconspicuous from 
above; the light under surface blends with the shadow and 
dims it. 
The divisions of the body---head, trunk, and tail. 
Movements of the fish and the part that the variou 
fins play in these movements. 
Note that the broad tail fin is the most useful fin for 
locomotion, the others act as balaneers or as brakes, or far 



224 NATURE STUDY 

causing currents of water near the gills. Observe the 
movements of the pair of fins nearest tile gills, tile move- 
ments of the mouth, and the currents of water entering 
the mouth and passing through the gill slits. When a fish 
is kept in a very small quantity of water, observe the effect 
produced on the movements of the mouth and gill flaps. 
\, hat are the uses of these movements ? The pupils will 
thus discover the nature of the respiration of the fish. 
Why do fish die if many are kept in a jar of water ? 
II 
By supplying various foods learn what kinds are pre- 
ferred. Find in the actions or habits of the liing fish 
evidences of a sense of smell, of sight, of hearing, and of 
taste. 
Nearly all the following points of detailed study can 
be observed from the living fish: shape; size; tongue; 
feeth; gill slits leading fr,m the mouth to the gills; 
nostrils, number and position', eyes, absence of eyelids;. _ 
fins, size, build; the arran.gement of the scales. 

Why does the fish require a large mouth ? 
Itow are the eyes protected ? Compare tile shape of file 
eye with tile shape of the eve of a land animal 
Why are there no openings from the surface directly 
into the ears? Show the suitability of the fins as organs 
-f locomotion in water. 

}EFEIENCES 
Silcox and Stevenson: Modern :hature Study 
Nash: Fises o] Ontario ffrom Detartment of Education. 
free) 
Kellogg: Elementary Zoolooy 



DECIDUOUS TREES 227 

planted bet.re the first of September. They may be 
started in .June also, in which case they make more growth 
before winter. The plot should be well fertilized with 
thoroughly rotted manure and, if the soil is very dry, the 
plot should be well watered the day before the seeds are 
planted.. The seeds are usually quite small and should be 
covered very lightly. The plot should be protected from 
the hot sun by means of cheese-cloth tacked on a frame. 
The plants should be watered twice a week in dry weather. 
In the late autumn, when tile ground freezes, the plot 
should be covered with leaves cr straw and some boards. 
which should be removed when the frost comes out in tile 
spring. 

DECIDUOUS TREES 

Before the pupils of this Form leave scho,,1 they 
should be able to recognize, by name as well as by sight, 
all of the species of trees found in their vicinity. To this 
end the" teacher should help them to prepare an inventory 
of species of trees, shrubs, and vines of the vicinity. They 
should learn to distinguish the different species of maples, 
elms, birches, etc. A named collection of leaves helps 
materially in doing this. The influence of emironment 
upon the growth and shape of trees and how trees adapt 
themselves to the conditions in which they live is a most 
interesting and profitable study, demanding careful obser- 
ration, reflection, and judgment. 

REFERENCES 
Muldrew: ylvan Ontario. Briggs. 
Keeler: Our l'ative Trees. Scribners' Sons. 

$2.00. 



230 NAq'URE STUDY 

SMALL FRUITS 

Study the method of propagating strawberries and such 
bush fruits as currants, gooseberries, raspberries, and black- 
berries. Reports issued from the Fruit Division of the 
Experimental Farm at Ottawa gives information regarding 
the best varieties suitable for different parts of Ontario 
and Quebec. IIave the pupils try propagating strawberries 
lv taking the stolons or runners ; currants and gooseberries, 
by means of layers or stem cuttings; and raspberries or 
bla,kberries. ]v rt.t (.utting. or the detm.hing of ro,t 
shoots or suckers. Stem and root cuttings, when taken in 
lhe autumn, may be planted at once or may he stored in 
damp moss or sand in a cold cellar over winter. Stem 
.uttings should be about the size and length of a lead.. 
pencil and root cuttings about half that size. 

AUTUMN WILD FLOWERS 

Observations made with garden flowers should be sup- 
plemented by observation lessons on a few selected wild 
fl0wers of the woods, fields, and roadsides. Although the 
.pring months afford a much greater variety of wild 
flowers than do the autumn months, they do not afford 
quite as good an opportunity for finding and studying 
them. The woods and fields are drier and more easily 
reached in the autumn and the fall flowers last much 
lon7er. Some of the species seen blooming in spring and 
oarly summer are now in fruit and scattering their seed, so. 
that the pupils have a chance to follow out the whole life 
hi.-torv of a few chosen species. The pupils in this 
Form might select for special study the milkweed, worm- 
seed mustard, wild aster, and goldenrod. These should 
be observed out-of-doors, preferably, but suitable class- 
room lessons may be taught by using similar matter. 



232 NATURE STUDY 

attachment. Early in the season the larvm may be found 
feeding on the leaves. 
This plant is traublesome in some fields and gardens 
and so is classed as a weed. When the stems come up in 
the spring, they arc soft and tender and are sometimes 
used as pot herbs. 
COmELAa'IOXS 
Draw a leaf, a flower, a pair of pods, and a seed witll 
its tuft. 
Write an account of a visit to the woods to study wild 
flowers. 
TREES 

A study of the pines of the locality may be commenced 
in Noember, after the deciduous trees have lost their 
leaves and have entered their quiescent winter period. 
This is the lime when the evergreens stant out promi- 
nently on the land.*cape, in sharp contrast with the other 
trees that have been stripped of their broad leaves and 
now look bare and lifeless. ]f o pines are to be found 
in the vicinity, cedar or hemlock may be substituted. The 
lessons should, as far as possible, be observational. The 
pupils should be encouraged to make observations for them- 
solves out of school. At least one lesson should be con- 
ducted out-of-doors, a suitable pine tree having been 
selected beforehand for the purpose. The following method 
will serve as a guide in the outdoor study of any species 
of tree : 
THE WHITE PINE 
Have the pupils observe the shape and height of the 
tree from a distance and trace the outline with the finger. 
(',mpare the shape of this trec with others near by of 
the same pecies and then with members of other species. 



234 NATURE STUDY 

horls of branches near the ground are usually small and 
dead in young trees and in old trees have completely dis- 
appeared. Relate the size of the trunk to its age, and 
also relate the size and length of the branches to their 
age. Where are the youngest brauches and how old are 
they? What branches are oldest? ,_N'otice how the branch 
is noticeably larger just where it joins the trunk, as this 
is the point of greatest strain. Are the branches the same 
length on all sides of the trunk? If not, find one where 
branches are shorter on one side than on the other and 
try to discover the cause. Usually, if other trees are near 
enough to shade a certain tree, the branches are shorter 
and smaller on the shaded side. 
Let the pupils look up into the tree from beneath and 
then go a little distance away and look at it. They will 
notice how bare the branches are on the inside, and the 
teacher will probahly have to explain why this is so. They 
will discover that the leaves are nearly all out toward the 
ends ef the branches. The leaves get light there while 
the centre of the tree top is shaded, and the o'reat question 
that every tree must try to solve is how to get most light 
fr its leaves. The pupils will now see an additional 
reason why the lower limbs should be longer than the 
upper ones. The greater length of the lower limbs brings 
the leaves out into the sunlight. 
Why this tree is called an evergreen may now be con- 
sidered. Why it retains its leaves all winter is a problem 
for more adxanced classes, but if the question is asked, 
the teacher may get over the difficulty by explaining to the 
class that the leaves are so small and yet so hardy that 
wind and frost and snow do not injure them. 
The pupils may each bring a small branch or twig 
back to the school-room, if the white pine is growing corn- 



TREES: THE WHITE PINE 235 

monly about, otherwise the teacher may provide himself 
with a branch upon which to base another observation 
lesson in the class-room. 
If the tree has cones on it, an effort should be made 
to get a few, as they will also be considered in a subse- 
quent class-room lesson. If the cones have not yet opened 
when they are picked, so much the better, as they will 
soon open in a warm room, and the pupils will be able to 
examine the seeds and notice how they whirl through the 
air in falling. If possible, let the pupils have an oppor- 
tunity of seeing pine trees owing in the woods as well 
as in the open. 

OUTLINE OF A CLA.qS-ROO]I LESSO-N  ON" TIIE WHITE PI.N'E 

Inierences. -- If possible, each pupil is supplied with 
a small branch of the white pine and the teacher with a 
larger branch which can easily be seen by all the pupils. 
Before proceeding to examine the specimens, give the 
pupils a chance to tell what they now know about the 
white pine, and thus review the lesson taken out-of-doors. 
Then ask a few questions bearing upon their own observa- 
tions, such as: What was the soil like where you found 
the pine tree growing? (They are found most comm,m]y 
on light, sandy soil.) Did you notice any difference 
between the shapes of the pines in the deep woods and the 
pines in the open fields ? Did you notice any dead limb. on 
those in the woods? Why did they die? The pupils may 
conclude that branches whose leaves cannot get the sun- 
light must die. Show that this causes knots in the lumber 
and exhibit samples. This explains also why the trees 
9f the forest have such tall stems without branches for a 
long distance up from the ground. They get the light 
only from above ad seem to strive with the surrounding 



238 NATURE STUDY 

Write a descr}ption of a pine tree seen in the woods; 
also ,f one found in the open. 
Write a list of things for which the white pine is use- 
ful. 

To t]e teacl, er.--The winter months, besides affording 
aa opportunity f0jr seeing trees and plants in their dormant 
,r quiescent condition, also afford an opportunity for 
reading and reflection, f, Jr recalling observations and ex- 
periences of the past season, and for making plans for 
work and study in the school garden, woods, and fields 
when spring returns. The knowledge gained by the pupils 
through first-hand observation of trees, flowers, and 
gardens can be greatly extended by pictures and stories 
descriptive of these, which the teacher may from time to 
time bring to the school-room. Their personal experiences 
will be the basis for interpretation of many new things 
which will come up in the reading lessons, in selections 
which the teacher reads from week to week, and in books 
and papers which they themselves read in [heir homes. 
Thus the interest that is aroused by the first-hand studies 
of plants in garden, orchard, or woodland will be carried 
over from autumn to spring, and the pupils, with the awak- 
ening of spring, will take up anew the study of plant life 
with a keener interest because of the time given to read- 
ing and reflection during the winter. Illustrated maga- 
zines dealing with gardening and with the study of trees 
and plants, and such magazines as have a children's de- 
pa'tment, will prove of great assistance to the teacher who 
makes any serious attempt to interest pupils in plant 
studies. Stories of life in the woods and of plant studies 
suitable to young pupils should be used. 



LESSONS ON WINTER APPLES 239 

REFERENCES 
Margaret Morley: Flowers and their Friends. Ginn & Co. 
50 cents. 
Margaret Morley: Seed Babies. Ginn & Co. 25 cents. 
Margaret Morley: Little Wanderers. Ginn & Co. 30 cents. 
Alice Loulmberry: The Garden Book ]or Young People. 
Stokes. $1.50. 
Gertrude Stone: Trees in Prose and Poetrl/. Ginn & Co. 
45 cents. 

COMPARATIVE LESSON ON 
VARIETIES OF WINTER APPLES 

KING, BALDWIN, NORTHERN" SPY 

Discuss the names, keeping and cooking qualities of 
the apples, and bearing qualities of the trees. 
Provide each member of the class with a t)Tical re- 
presentative of each of tile above varieties of al)ples. 
Compare the three apples as to size, f,grln, c,)lour 
including marks; hardness, length, and thickness of stem; 
depth of cavity at the stem end; depth and shape of the 
cavity at the calyx end. 
Split each apple from stem to calyx and compare as 
to the tifickne.s and touglmess of the skin, the colour of 
the flesh, the size of the core, taste and juiciness of the 
flesh. 

To te teacher.--All three are apples of fair size, the 
Baldwin being on the average tile smallest of tile three. All 
three are roundish, but the King is somewhat oval-round. 
and the Spy, conical-round. The Baldwin has a yellowish 
skin with crimson and red splashes dotted with russet 
spots. The King is reddish, shading to dark crimson. The 
Spy has a yellowish-green skin sprinkled with pink and 
striped with red. 



240 NATURE STUDY 

The beautiful colours make all these apples very 
popular in the markets of American cities and in those of 
the British Isles; but the soft and easily damaged skin of 
the ,Spy makes it the least desirable as an apple for export. 
All keep well and in cool cellars remain in good con- 
dition until April. They may be kept much longer in cold 
storage chambers, where the temperature is uniformly near 
the freezing point of the apple. 
The Baldwin apple tree is reas,nablv hardy within the 
ordinary range f,,r apple tree.% and its yield is a satisfac- 
tory average. Tim Kin.(.., apple tree is not a hardy tree, 
nor is it a satisfactory bearer except in the best apple 
districts, rl'be Spy is a fairly hardy tree ald thrives and 
yields well throughout a wide range: but it does not begin 
to bear until it is about fifteen 'ears old. 
A comparative lesson may also be based on selected 
varieties of autumn apple.% such as Famease, McIntosh 
]ted, Wealthy, {;raventein, and St. Lawrence. 

CODLING MOTH 

Begin the study of the codling moth in August by 
examinin. wormy apples. Find out, by asking the pupils, 
which orchards of the locality had been sprayed in the 
sprin._,:. 
Ask the pupils to count out at random one hundred 
apples and to select from these the number that are 
wormy. What percentaze of the apples are wormy? Com- 
pare the percenta._-,e of wormy apples in unsprayed, with 
that in sprayed, orchards. The results will afford evidence 
of the benefit of spraying. 
Find out, if possible, the dates on which, and the con- 
ditions under which, the spraying of the orchards with 
tim least luml,t.r ,f wormy apples was dmle. 



SALAMANDERS, OR NEWTS 

CENTIPEDS AND IILLIPEDS 

Under stones and sticks in moist soil are to be found 
io worm-like forms, both having many legs. 
One of these animals is flat, about an inch long, brown 
in colour, and provided with a pair of long feelers. On 
each division of the body is a single pair of legs. This is 
the centiped. The other animal is more cylindrical in 
shape and has two pairs of legs on each division of the 
body. Its colour is a darker browu than that of the 
centiped, and it has a habit of coiling into a spiral shape, 
when disturbed, so that the soft under surface is concealed. 
This is the ,illbed. Both of these animals are quite 
},arraes and feed on decaying vegetable matter. They 
stand midway between worn's and insects in forms and 
habits. 
A brief observation lesson ou each animal, involving 
their movements and the structural features named above, 
will enable the pupils to identify them and to appreciate 
their position in the animal kingdom. 

SALAIANDERS, OR NEWTS 

Some forms of these are found in water, as in streams, 
ponds, and ditches, while other forms are fond on land, 
where they hide under stones and sticks. They are com- 
monly mistaken for lizards, which they closely resemble in 
shape; but the two animals may be distinguished by the 
fact that the surface of the body of a salamander is 
smooth, while that of a lizard is covered with scales. 
The small red or copper-co]oured newts are the most 
common in Ontario and are frequently found on roads 
after heavy rains. The tiger salamanders are larger than 
the red newts and are marked with orange and black 



BIRD STUDIES 245' 

end of the animal and are placed and fastened by means of 
the !eet. 
:Examine, by the aid of a hand lens, the feet and head 
of the spider. Note the "brushes and combs" on the 
former. Note, on the latter, the four, six, or eight eyes 
(the number and arrangement vary), and the short poison 
claws at the front of the head. Eow are the poison claws 
adapted for seizing and piercing? Note the sharp hooks 
at the lower ends. 

BIRD STUDIES 

Continue the lessons in bird identification and in bird 
types, using the methods outlined for these studies in 
Form III. (See pp. 17--t.) 



CHAPTER XIII 
FORM IV 
WINTER 
FOREST TREES 
EYEIIGI{EENS 
SEVERAL species of evergreens have already been studied. 
These should be reviewed, and representatives of other 
species examined. Mid-winter is most suitable for the 
study of evergreens. The following points should be con- 
sidereal" 
I. Description leading to identification 
?. Nature of soil and water conditions 
3. Common uses of each species of evergreen 
4. Collection of wood specimens and cones. 

WOOD SPECIIIENS 

Spocimens should be uniform in size and should show 
l,ark on one side and heart wood as well as the outside, or 
sap wood. They should be about six inches long, two inches 
wide on the side having the bark, and should gradually 
come to an edge toward the pith, or centre. When sea- 
soned, one side and one edge should be polished and then 
oiled or xarnished. Specimens of the wood of the deciduous 
trees may also be prepared during the winter. 
2-16 



248 NATURE STUDY 

cultural societies, as well as Dominion and Provincia 
Departments of Agriculture, commonly give selected lists 
with descriptions of the different "arieties. 

WEEDS AND WEED SEEDS 

The training in the observation and identification of 
weeds and weed seeds, which was begun in Form III, 
should be continued in Form IX'. For method see Form 
Ill. 

I'IIYSICAL St'IENt'E I'IIASE OF NATUHE STUDY 

WATER PRESSURE 

1. f;rasp an emI)ty tin can by the top and push it down 
into a pail of water. Note the tendency of the can to rise. 
The water presses upward. Its downward pressure is 
evident. 
'. Tie a large stone to a string, hold it at arm's length, 
shut the eyes. and lower the stone into water. Note the 
decrease in weight. This is also due to upward pressure, 
which we call buoyancy. The actual decrease may be found 
by means of a spring balance. 
3. Try Experiment :?, using a piece of iron the same 
weight as the stone. Is the decrease in weight as evident? 
Ships made wholly of iron will sink, Explain. 
4, Put an egg into water; it slowly sinks. Add salf 
to the water; the egg floats. 

:EXERCISES 
1. Will the human body sink in water? In hich is 
there less danger of drowning, lake or sea water? 



PHYSICAL SCIENCE: STUDY OF AIR 249 

2. When in bathing, immerse nearly the whole body, 
then take a full inspiration. Note the rise of the body. 
3. Why does ice float? (See expansion of water by 
freezing. ) 
4. Balloons are bags filled with some Iight gas, gener- 
ally hydrogen or hot air. They arc pushed up by the 
buoyancy of the air. The rise of heated air or water (see 
Convection) is really due to the same force. Clouds, 
feathers, and thistledown are kept in the air more by the 
action of winds and small air currents than by buoyancy. 

STUDY OF AIR 
(Consult Science o] Common Li]e, Chaps. VIII. IX, 
1. Air takes up space, l'ut a cork with one bole into 
the neck of a flask or bottle. Insert the stem of a funnel 
and try to pour in water. Try with two holes in the cork. 
When we call a bottle '" empty" what is in it ? 
2. Air is all around us. Feel it; wave the hands 
through it; run through it; note that the wind is air; 
inhale the air and watch the chest. 
3. Air has weight. This is not easy to demo,strate 
without an air-pump and a fairly delicate balance. 
Fit a large glass flask with a tightly fitting rubber 
stopper having a short glass tube passing through it. To the 
glass tube attach a short rubber one and on this put a clamp. 
Open the clamp and suck out all the air possible. Close 
the clamp and weigh the flask. When perfectly balanced, 
open the clamp and let the air enter again. Note the 
increase in weight. 
If an air-pump is available, procure a glass globe pro- 
vided with a stop-cock {see Apparatus. Pump some of 
the air from the globe, then weigh and, while it is on the 
balance, admit the air again and note increase in weight. 



252 NATURE STUDY 

tires and footballs inflated and that of steam in driving 
an engine are examples. :It is this force that prevents 
the pressure of air from crushing in, since there are many 
air spaces distributed throughout the body. 

CO]IPOSITION OF AIR 
This subject and the three immediately following it 
have a special bearing on hygiene. 
1. Invert a sealing-jar over a lighted candle, Has the 
eandle used up all the air when it goes out? 
2. :i'lace a very short candle on a thin piece of cork 
afloat on water in a plate; light the eandle, and again 
invert the jar over it. Note that the candle goes out and 
the water rises onh" a short distance in the jar; therefore 
all the air has n,t been used up. 
3. Slip the glass top of the jar under the open end and 
set the jar m,uth upward on the table without allowing 
any water to escape. Now plunge a lighted splinter into 
the jar. The flame is extinguished. 
Air, therefore, eontains an active part that helps the 
-andlc to burn and an inaetive part that extinguishes 
flame. The names o.rygen and nitrogen may be given. 
These gases occur in air in the proportion of about 1-4. 
(This method is not above criticism. Its advantage for 
young pupils lies in its simplicity.) 

OXYGEN 

Make two or three jars of oxygen, using potassium 
chlorate and manganese dioxide. (See any Chemistry 
text-hook.) Let the pupils examine the chemicals, learn 
their names, and know where to obtain them. Perform 
the foll,wing experiment.: 



'256 NATURE STUDY 

SOLUTION OF LIQUIDS 
Try to mix oil and water, benzine and water, oil and 
benzine. 0n]y in the third case do we find a permanent 
mixture, or solution. Try to dissolve vinegar, glycerine, 
alcohol, mercury, with water. 
APPLICATION : 
1. Paint is mixed with oil so that the rain will not wash 
it off so easily. 
2. Water will not wash grease stains. Benzine is 
necessary. 
3. Why is it necessary to "shake" the bottle before 
taking medicine ? 
SOLUTION OF GASES 
Study air dissolved in water, by gently heating water 
in a test-tube and observing the bubbles of air that gather 
on the inner surface of the test-tube. Aquatic animals, such 
as fish, clams, crayfish, crabs, subsist on this dissolved air. 

LIMESTONE 
Pieces of this rock may be found in all localities. 
Teach pupils to recognize it by its gray colour, its effer- 
vescence with acid, and the fossils and strata that show 
in most cases. If exposed limestone rocks are near, visit 
them with the pupils and note the layers, fossils, and 
evidences of sea action. Compare lime with limestone as 
to touch, colour, and action on water and litmus. Try 
lo make lime by putting a lump of limestone in the coals 
f,)r some time: add water to this. Other forms of lime- 
stone are marble, chalk, egg-shells, clam-shells, scales in 
tea-kettles. 
Geographically, the study of limestone is of great 
importance. Grind some limestone 'erv fine, add a very 



FARM TOOLS: PROBLEMS 261 

changed direction of the rope. When the pulley is 
mocablc, the horse pulling will have only half the weight 
to draw if the pulley is single, one quarter if double, one 
sixth if triple, etc. Thus in the case of a common hay- 
fork the horse draws only half the weight of the hay, but 
he walks twice as far as the hay moves. 
Coos.--If one wheel has eighty cog. and tlie other ten, 
the latter will turn eight times, to the former's once. 
BFLT.--'hen a belt runs over two wheels, one having, 
say, one fifth of the diameter of the other, the smaller will 
revolve five times for one revolution of the other. 
('.K.--With a craM" two feet long, one may turn a 
wheel twice as easily as with one one foot loug, but the 
hand will move twice as far. If a wedge is two inches 
thick at the large end and ten inches long, a man may lift 
1000 pounds by striking the wedge a 200-lb. blow. 
ISCL_'E) PL..x'n.If a plauk twelve inches long has 
one end on the ,oround and the other on a cart four inches 
high, one man can roll up the plank the same weight that 
would require three men to lift, but he has to move the 
object three times as far. 

PROBLEMS 

1. Why is a long-handled spade easier to dig with 
than a short-handled one ? 
2. Which is easier, to dig when the spade is thrust full 
length or half length into the earth ? 
3. ('an a small boy " teeter" on a board against a big 
boy ? How ? 
4. In helpin to move a wagon, why grasp the wheel 
near its rim ? 



CHAPTER XIV 

FORM IV 

SPRING 

METHODS OF IMPROVING HOME AND SCHOOL 
GROUN'DS 

THE study of plants should lead to an intelligent 
appreciation of their beauties and a desire to have them 
growing about. Many of our native trees, shrubs, vines, 
and herbaceous plants are quite as beautiful as s,,me that 
are proeured at considerable expense from nurserymen. 
A great work remains to he done in cultivating and 
popularizing our best native species. Up to this point 
the pupils have been getting acquainted with them in 
their own natural habitat: the uext step should be to use 
them in covering up harsh and offensive views about the 
ehool and home ground., in softening and giving restful 
relief to barren yards and bare walls, to ugly fences and 
uninteresting walks and driveways. 
Begin to plan some simple improvements for the 
pring. These may be repairing of fences and gates in 
order to protect the orounds from stray animals, the 
cleaning up of the yards, the gathering of stones which 
may be used in making a rockery, the planting of trees 
along the sides and front of the grounds--a double row 
of evergreens to overcome a cold northern exposure or to 
exclude from view disagreeable features, the la.vin out 
of a walk or drive with borders, flower beds, or shrubs in 
little clumps. 
263 
18 



264 NATURE STUDY 

Plans of grounds well laid out should be examined 
and discussed in the school-room. Many illustrated maga- 
zines give useful suggestions. Plans can be worked out 
on the black-board with the pupils. It will take years 
to complete such a plan, but the pupils should have a 
part in making the plan as well as in carrying it out. The 
aim should be to encourage the use of simple and inex- 
pensive tbin. obtained in the vicinity, wherewith to pro- 
duce harmmy and pleasing natural effects. 
Comfort and utility must be considered as well as 
beauty and natural design. In the school grounds the 
outdoor games must also be provided for and sufficient 
room allowed. 
Such efforts on the part of the teacher and pupils, if 
wisely directed, are sure to meet with the approval of the 
larents aud must call forth the hearty co-operation of the 
trustees. 
It is not well to attempt too much in one year. It is 
better to do a small amount well than to leave much work 
in a half-done condition. 

:MAKINO AND CARE OF A LAWN 

The soil must be drained and not too much shaded by 
trees. At first it should be summer fallowed or cultivated 
every few weeks throughout the summer, to kill the weeds 
and make it fine and level. A thick seeding of lawn grass- 
seed should be sown early the next spring and raked 
lightly in. All levelling and preparation must have been 
done the previous season. 
Coarse grasses, such as timothy, should not be used 
on a lawn. Red top and Kentucky blue-,on-ass in equal 
parts are best and, if white clover is desired, add about 
half as nmch white Dutch clover seed as red top. If the soil 



266 NATURE STUDY 

Frm this give a reason (1) for tilling soil, () for rolling 
after seeding. 
SUBSOILS 
l'rocurc samples of soil from different depths, four 
inches, eight inches, twelve inches, sixteen inches, etc. 
Ncte how the soil changes in colour and texture. :In which 
do plauts succeed best ? In most fields the richest part of 
the soil is contained in the upper nine inches; the portion 
helnw this is called suSsil. This extends to the underlying 
r,ck and is usually distinguished from the upper portion 
I,v its lighter cohmr, p,orer texture, and smaller supply of 
,vailable plant food. The differeuce is due largely to the 
absence of humus. The character of the subsoil has an 
imp,,rtant bearing on the condition of the upper soil A 
laver of saud or gravel a few feet below the surface provides 
uatural drainage, but if it he too deep, it may allow the 
water to run away rapidly, carrying the plant food down 
below the roots of the plants. A hard clay subsoil will 
render the top too wet in rainy weather and too dry in 
drouzhts, because of the small amount of water absorbed. 
,qwh a soil is benefited by under-draining. A deep and 
absorptive shsoil returns wter to the surface, by capillary 
action, as it is needed. The subsoil finally contains a large 
amount of plant food, which becomes gradually changed 
into a form in which plants can make use of it. Pupils 
hould find out the character of the subsoil in their 
various fields at home and its effec on the fertility of the 
field. 
FEIITILIZEII8 
Along with water, the roots take up from the soil 
rarious mbstanees that are essential to their healthy 
growth. Potash, phosphoric acid, nitrogen, calcium, sul- 



IERTILIZERS 267 

phur, magnesium, and iron are needed by plants, but the 
first three are particularly important. If land is to yield 
good crops year after year, it must be fertilized, that is, 
there must be added chemicals containing the above- 
mentioned plant foods. Land becomes poor from two 
causes: the plant food in the soil becomes exhausted, and 
poisonous excretions from the roots of one year's crops 
act injuriously on those of tlJe next season. Rotating 
crops will improve both conditions for a while, but even- 
tually the soil will require treatment. 
Humus contains plant food and is also an excellent 
absorbent of the poisonous excretions. It is added as barn- 
yard manure, leaves, or as a gTeen crop ploughed in. 
The chemicals commonly used comprise nitrate of 
soda, bone meal, sulphate of potash, chloride of potash, 
lime, ashes, cotton-seed meal, dried blood, super-phosphate, 
rock phosphate, and basic clay. 

EXPERI3IE.'TS: 
:l. OW wheat on the same plot year after year and note 
the result when no fertilizer is used. ,ow wheat on 
another plot, btt tse good manure. 
2. Try the various commercial fertilizers on the school 
plots, leaving some without treatment. 
3. Examine the roots of clover, peas, or beans, and 
look for nodules. These show the presence of bacteria. 
which convert the atmospheric nitrogen into a form in 
which the plants can use it. Scientific farmers have learned 
the value of inoculating their soil with these germ. A 
crop of peas or clover may produce the same result. 
4. Observe :Nature's method of spp]ying soil with 
humus. 



SOIL-FORMING AGENTS 269 

5. PLANTS.--i}ur study of humus shows the value of 
vegetable matter in soil. Besides contributing to the soil, 
plants break up rocks with their roots and dissolve them 
with acid excretions. It is interesting to study how a 
bare rock becomes covered with soil. First come the 
lichens which need no soil; on the remains of these the 
mosses grow. The roots of mosses and lichens help to 
disintegrate the rock with their excretions, so that. with 
frost, heat, air, and rain to assist, there is a layer of soil 
gradually formed on which larger plants can live. A 
forest develops. The trees supply shade from the sun 
and shelter from the wind, thus retarding evaporation. 
The roots of the trees hold the soil from being washed 
away. The dead leaves and fallen stems provide humus, 
and, on account of the water-holding capacity of humus, 
the forest floor acts like a sponge, preventing floods in wet 
seasons and droughts in dry times. 
6. Axi.r tLs.--Pupils should make a list of all burrow- 
ing animals and look for examples. The work of the 
earthworms is especially interesting. By eating the soil, 
they improve its texture and expose it to the air. Their 
holes admit air and water to the soil. The worms also 
drag leaves, sticks, and ass into their holes and thus add 
to the humus. 
Darwin estimated that the earthworms in England 
passed over ten tons of soil an acre through their bodies 
annually. This is left on the surface and makes a rich 
top-dressing. 
TILLING THE SOIL 
1. It makes the soil finer, thus increasing the surface 
for holding film water and enabling it to conduct more 
water by capillarity. 



274 NATURE STUDY 

otf one and leaving it uninjured in the other. Set them 
side by side in moist earth and notice which withers. Take 
all the leaxes off a plant and keep them off for a few weeks. 
The plant dies if its leaves are not allowed to grow. Keep 
it in the dark for a long time, and it finally dies even when 
water and soil are supplied. The leaves, therefore, are 
essential and require sunlight in doing their work. Their 
complete work will be considered later. 

IIOW THE PLAX'T GETS ITS FOOD FROM THE SOIL 
When seeds germinate, the lower end of the caulicle, 
which becomes the root, bears large number. of root-hairs. 
Inside the root-hairs is protoplasm and cell sap. These 
root-hairs grow among the .oil particles which lie covered 
over with a thin film of moisture. It is this moisture 
that is taken up by these root-hairs, and in it is a small 
am-unt of mineral matter in solution which helps to sus- 
tain the plant. The transmission of soil water through 
the delicate cell walls of these root-hairs is known as 
oxnl O.Uis. 

GERMI\'ATION OF SOME OF THE COMMON GRAINS 

Make a special study of corn, wheat, and buckwheat. 
Take three plates and put moist sand in each to a depth 
of about half an inch. Spread over this a piece of damp 
cloth. Put in No. 1, one hundred grains of corn ; in No. 2, 
the same number of grains of wheat ; and in No. 3, the same 
number of grains of buckwheat, peas, or beans. Cover 
each plate with another piece of damp cloth and invert 
another plate over each to prevent drying out. Keep in 
a warm room and do not allow the cloths to become dr)-. 
If one of the cloths he left hanging six or eight inches 



GERMINATION OF GRAINS 277 

Allow five other pupils to plant seeds of buckwheat, 
under similar conditions. Treat all pots alike as to time 
of watering and quantity of water used on each and give 
them all equal light and heat. Note which come up first. 
Which are highest in one week, in two weeks, in f,ur 
weeks ? 
/. This study may be continued in the garden by 
planting one plot each of corn, wheat, and buckwheat. 
Plots ten feet by twenty feet are large enough. Observe the 
rate of development in the plots. Which seems to mature 
most quickly? Which blossoms first? In what respect 
are the leaves of these plants alike or unlike? How do 
the stems differ? 
Examine the blosse, ming and seed formation. When 
the g-rains are ripe, collect a hundred of the best looking 
and most compact heads of each grain and also a hundred 
of the smallest heads of each. Dry, shell, and store the 
two samples of each g-rain in separate bottles. These 
samples are for planting the following spring. 
13. To show the need of moisture in germination: 
Fill two flower-pots or cans with dry sand; put seeds of 
sunflower in each, covering them an inch deep. Put water 
in one pot and none in the other. Examine both pots 
after two or three days. 
14. To show that heat is needed for germination of 
seeds: Plant sunflower seeds in two pots as above; place 
one in a warm room and the other in a cold room or re- 
frigerator; water both and observe result in three days. 
15. To show that air is necessary for zermination : Fill 
a pint sealer with hydron (the zas collected over water 
in the usual way, as shown in any Chemistry text-book). 
P,_t it few sunflower seeds in a small sponge or wrap them 
loosely in a piece of soft cloth. Keeping the mouth of the 



ANIMAL STUDIES 

SCALE INSECTS 

SAN JOSI:: SCALE 
Certain districts in Ontario and especially those bor- 
dering on Lake Erie have suffered from the ravages of 
this scale on apple, peach, pear, and other orchard trees. 
A hand lens should be used in studyin these inse(-ts. 
observations being carried on from May to September. 
('arefullv examine the fruits and twigs of ,,rchard 
trees for evidences of the presence of tim scale, and learn 
to identify it and to recognize the damages resulting from 
its attacks. 
Observe the al,n,,st circular flat scale of a grafish 
colour and having a minute point projecting upward at 
its centre. The young inse,.ts whi,.h emerge fr,,m under- 
neath these scales in th,, spring crawl ar,,und for a time. 
then become stationary, and ea,.h one secretes a s,.ale under 
which it matures. The mature males have two wins but 
the mature females are wingless. Note the withering of 
fruit and twigs due to the insects' attacks and the minute 
openings in the skin of the twig. made by the insertion of 
the sucking mouth parts. 
Describe to the pupils how the insect was transported 
from Japan to America and how it is now spread on 
nursery, stock. Give a brief account of its destructive- 
ness in the orchards of Essex and Kent. 

(Consult Bulletin No. I53, Common Insects Af]ecting Fruit 
'rees end Fungus Diseases Af]ecting Fruit Trees. Bethune & 
J'arvis, Department of Agriculture, Toronto, free.)